بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
In the Name of Allah The most Gracious The Most Merciful
The pillars of salat are essential and if you miss it and remember after you have prayed then you have to do your prayer over again. If you remember that you missed a pillar in your prayer then you must redo the pillar. A scenerio would be that you are in your second unit of prayer and you remembered that you missed a pillar in your first unit then that second unit now becomes your first unit of prayer. If for example you forget to recite al fatiha and you remember in rukoo’ or sujood that you did not do it then you stand up and complete that as the unit in hand. When one finishes the taslim then they must do sujood as sahw (prostration of forgetfulness). It is two prostrations.
There are 14 pillars to the prayer and they are:
1. Standing: This applies to the obligatory prayer. If one is not able to stand then they may sit.
Guard strictly (five obligatory) AsSalawât (the prayers) especially the middle Salât (i.e. the best prayer ‘Asr). And stand before Allâh with obedience [and do not speak to others during the Salât (prayers)]. (Surah Al-Baqarah 2:238)
2. Opening Takbir, to start the prayer after standing by saying Allahu akbar and bringing your hands to either shoulder or ear level while your palms face the qiblah (do NOT touch your ears with your thumbs as some people do).
…The Prophet (salla-Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said:…When you stand for prayer say Takbir…(Sahih al-bukhari, Book of characteristics of Prayer, Hadith 724)
3. Al-Fatiha, It MUST be prayed in every rak’ah (unit) of prayer.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “There is no prayer for the one who does not recite the Opening of the Book [i.e., al-Faatihah].” (Sahih al-Bukhaari, Hadith 714)
4. Bowing 5. Standing after bowing
6. Prostrating (on seven limbs)
7. Rising from Prostration
8. Sitting between the two prostrations
These pillars are taken from the following two daleel (evidence), O you who believe! Bow down, and prostrate yourselves, and worship your Lord and do good that you may be successful. (Surah Al-Hajj 22:77) and the hadith of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم),Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas: The Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said, “I have been ordered to prostrate on seven bones i.e. on the forehead along with the tip of the nose and the Prophet pointed towards his nose, both hands, both knees and the toes of both feet and not to gather the clothes or the hair.” (Sahih al-bukhari, Book of Characteristics of prayer, Hadith 776)
9. Tranquility in all the actions 10. Performing the pillars in order
These two pillars have the evidence of the hadith of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم), Narrated Abu Huraira: Once the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم) entered the mosque, a man came in, offered the prayer and greeted the Prophet. The Prophet returned his greeting and said to him, “Go back and pray again for you have not prayed.” The man offered the prayer again, came back and greeted the Prophet. He said to him thrice, “Go back and pray again for you have not prayed.” The man said, “By Him Who has sent you with the truth! I do not know a better way of praying. Kindly teach Me how to pray.” He said, “When you stand for the prayer, say Takbir and then recite from the Qur’an what you know and then bow with calmness till you feel at ease, then rise from bowing till you stand straight. Afterwards prostrate calmly till you feel at ease and then raise (your head) and sit with Calmness till you feel at ease and then prostrate with calmness till you feel at ease in prostration and do the same in the whole of your prayer.” (Sahih al-bukhari, Book of characteristics of prayer, Hadith 759)
11. The Final Tashahud (testification) 12. Sitting down for it
These two pillars are covered in the hadith, ‘Abdullah (b. Mas’ud) said: While observing prayer behind the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) we used to recite: Peace be upon Allah, peace be upon so and so. One day the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه و سلم) said to us: Verily Allah is himself peace. When any one of you sits during the prayer. he should say: All services rendered by words, by acts of worship, and all good things are due to Allah. Peace be upon you,0 Prophet, and Allah’s mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and upon Allah’s upright servants, for when he says this it reaches every upright servant in heaven and earth (and say further): I testify that there is no god worthy of worship but Allah and I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger. Then he may choose any supplication which pleases him and offer it. (Agreed upon)
13. Sending Salat (prayer) upon the prophet (صلى الله عليه و سلم)
Al-Bukhari recorded that Ka`b bin `Ujrah said, “It was said, `O Messenger of Allah, with regard to sending Salam upon you, we know about this, but how about Salah’ He said: (Say: “O Allah, send Your Salah upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your Salah upon the family of Ibrahim, verily You are the Most Praiseworthy, Most Glorious. O Allah, send Your blessings upon Muhammad and upon the family of Muhammad, as You sent Your blessings upon the family of Ibrahim, verily You are Most Praiseworthy, Most Glorious.”
14. The two Taslims (saying as-salamualikum wa rahmat-Allah)
Narrated Itban bin Malik Al-Ansari: The Prophet (came to my house and) asked permission for entering and I allowed him. He asked, “Where do you like me to pray in your house?” I pointed to a place which I liked. He stood up for prayer and we aligned behind him and he finished the prayer with Taslim and we did the same. (Sahih al-bukhari, Book of call to prayers, Hadith 654).