The first stage: It was characterized by a great amount of trouble and discord, it had too many obstacles from within, coupled by a hostile wave from without aiming at total extermination of the rising faith. It ended with Al-Hudaibiyah Peace Treaty in Dhul Qa‘da 6 A.H.
In Madinah, the Prophet [pbuh] had to deal with three distinctively different categories of people with different respective problems:
His Companions, the noble and Allah fearing elite [R]. Polytheists still detached from Islam and were purely Madinese tribes. The Jews.
In Madinah ,all the affairs of their life rested in their hands. They were at ease and could quite confidently handle the challenges of civilization, construction, means of living, economics, politics, government administration, war and peace, codification of the questions of the allowed and prohibited, worship, ethics and all the relevant issues.
In a nutshell, they were in Madinah at full liberty to erect the pillars of a new Muslim community not only utterly different from that pre-Islamic code of life, but also distinctive in its features in the world at large. Allah, the All-Knowing, of course undertook legislation and His Prophet Muhammad [pbuh], implementation and orientation:
“He it is Who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger (Muhammad [pbuh]) from among themselves, reciting to them His Verses, purifying them (from the filth of disbelief and polytheism), and teaching them the Book (this Qur’an, Islamic laws and Islamic Jurisprudence) and Al-Hikmah (As-Sunna: legal ways, orders, acts of worship, etc. of the Prophet Muhammad [pbuh].).” [Surah al-Jumu’ah 62:2]
And the first to embrace Islâm of the Muhâjirûn (those who migrated from Makkah to Al-Madinah) and the Ansâr (the citizens of Al-Madinah who helped and gave aid to the Muhâjirûn) and also those who followed them exactly (in Faith). Allâh is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them Gardens under which riversflow (Paradise), to dwell therein forever. That is the supreme success.(Surah at-Tawbah 9:100)
“And when His Verses (this Qur’an) are recited unto them, they (i.e. the Verses) increase their Faith.” [Surah al-Anfal 8:2]
The first task to which the Prophet [pbuh] attended on his arrival in Madinah was the construction of a Mosque, in the very site where his camel knelt down. The land, which belonged to two orphans, was purchased. The Prophet [pbuh] himself contributed to building the Mosque by carrying adobe bricks and stones while reciting verses: “O Allah! no bliss is there but that of the Hereafter, I beseech you to forgive the Emigrants and Helpers.”
The Qiblah was Jerusalem, the adhaan was instituted, a place was reserved for the Muslims who had neither family nor home. The Masjid was a hub for learning, discourses, it was the headquarter wherein all the affairs of the Muslims were administered, and consultative and executive councils held.
The Mosque being thus constructed, the Prophet (Peace be upon him) next turned his attention to cementing the ties of mutual brotherhood amongst the Muslims of Madinah, Al-Ansar (the Helpers) and Al-Muhajirun (the Emigrants). It was indeed unique in the history of the world. A gathering of 90 men, half of whom Emigrants and the others Helpers assembled in the house of Anas bin Malik where the Prophet (Peace be upon him) gave the spirit of brotherhood his official blessing. When either of the two persons who had been paired as brothers, passed away, his property was inherited by his brother-in-faith. This practice continued till the following verse was revealed at the time of the battle of Badr, and the regular rule of inheritance was allowed to take its usual course:
“But kindred by blood are nearer to one another regarding inheritance.” [Surah al-Anfal8:75]
The Prophet was keen on establishing friendly relations between the Muslims and non-Muslim tribes of Arabia. He established a sort of treaty aiming at ruling out all pre-Islamic rancour and inter-tribal feuds. To establish this he sallallahu alaihi wa sallam drafted a charter consisting of 12 points:
In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
This is a document from Muhammad, the Messenger of Allâh, concerning Emigrants and Helpers and those who followed and strove with them.
1) They are one nation to the exclusion of other people.
2) The Emigrants of Quraish unite together and shall pay blood money among themselves, and shall ransom honourably their prisoners. Every tribe of the Helpers unite together, as they were at first, and every section among them will pay a ransom for acquitting its relative prisoners.
3) Believers shall not leave anyone destitute among them by not paying his redemption money or blood money in kind.
4) Whoever is rebellious or whoever seeks to spread enmity and sedition, the hand of every God-fearing Muslim shall be against him, even if he be his son.
5) A believer shall not kill another believer, nor shall support a disbeliever against a believer.
6) The protection of Allâh is one (and is equally) extended to the humblest of the believers.
7) The believers are supported by each other.
8) Whosoever of the Jews follows us shall have aid and succour; they shall not be injured, nor any enemy be aided against them.
9) The peace of the believers is indivisible. No separate peace shall be made when believers are fighting in the way of Allâh. Conditions must be fair and equitable to all.
10) It shall not be lawful for a believer, who holds by what is in this document and believes in Allâh and the Day of Judgement, to help a criminal nor give him refuge. Those who give him refuge and render him help shall have the curse and anger of Allâh on the Day of Resurrection. Their indemnity is not accepted.
11) Whenever you differ about a matter, it must be referred to Allâh and to Muhammad.
12) Killing a believer deliberately with no good reason entails killing the killer unless the sponsor deems it otherwise.
The second phase: It featured the truce with the pagan leadership and ended with the Conquest of Makkah in 8 A.H
Treaty of al-Hudaibiyah:
Occured in Dhul Qa’dah 6 A.H. When Quraish saw the firm determination of the Muslims to shed the last drop of blood for the defence of their Faith, they came to their senses and realized that Muhammad’s followers could not be cowed down by these tactics. After some further interchange of messages they agreed to conclude a treaty of reconciliation and peace with the Muslims. The clauses of the said treaty go as follows:
1. The Muslims shall return this time and come back next year, but they shall not stay in Makkah for more than three days.
2. They shall not come back armed but can bring with them swords only sheathed in scabbards and these shall be kept in bags.
3. War activities shall be suspended for ten years, during which both parties will live in full security and neither will raise sword against the other.
4. If anyone from Quraish goes over to Muhammad (Peace be upon him) without his guardian’s permission, he should be sent back to Quraish, but should any of Muhammad’s followers return to Quraish, he shall not be sent back.
5. Whosoever to join Muhammad (Peace be upon him), or enter into treaty with him, should have the liberty to do so; and likewise whosoever wishes to join Quraish, or enter into treaty with them, should be allowed to do so. when the agreement was to be committed to writing, ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, who acted as a scribe began with the words: Bismillâh ir-Rahman ir-Raheem, i.e., “In the Name of Allâh, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful” but the Makkan plenipotentiary, Suhail bin ‘Amr declared that he knew nothing about Ar-Rahman and insisted upon the customary formula Bi-ismika Allâhumma, i.e., “In Your Name, O Allâh!” The Muslims grumbled with uneasiness but the Prophet (Peace be upon him) agreed. He then went on to dictate, “This is what Muhammad, the Messenger of Allâh has agreed to with Suhail bin ‘Amr.” Upon this Suhail again protested: “Had we acknowledged you as Prophet, we would not have debarred you from the Sacred House, nor fought against you. Write your own name and the name of your father.” The Muslims grumbled as before and refused to consent to the change. The Prophet (Peace be upon him), however, in the larger interest of Islam.
The third phase: People embraced Islam in hosts. Tribes paid homage to the Prophet and it ended with the death of the Prophet.
The invasion and the conquest of Makkah was a decisive battle that destroyed paganism utterly. The Arabs as a result of that battle were able to differentiate the truth from the error. People began to convert into Islam in hosts, and the Muslim army that numbered 3000 only in the previous Ghazwah, now came to reach 10,000 in number.
Delusion no longer existed in their life. So they raced to embrace Islam. ‘Amr bin Salamah said: “We were at a water (spring) where the passage of people was. So when camel riders passed by us we used to ask them: ‘What is the matter with people? What is this man (i.e. the Prophet) like?’ They would say, ‘He claims that Allâh has revealed so and so.’ I used to memorize those words as if they had been recited within my chest. The Arabs used to ascribe their Islamization to the conquest. They would say: ‘Leave him alone to face his people. If he were a truthful Prophet he would overcome them.’ So when the conquest took place, peoples hastened to declare their Islam. My father was the quickest of all my people to embrace Islam. Arriving at his people he said: ‘By Allâh I have just verily been to the Prophet (Peace be upon him) . And he said: ‘Perform so a prayer at such a time, and so and so prayers at such and such time. When the prayer time is due let one of you call for the prayer and appoint the most learned of the Qur’ân among you to be an Imam (leader) of yours.”
The Islamic Call eventually prevailed all over Arabia. It removed all traces of Al-Jahiliyah from the horizon of the peninsula. The sick minds of Al-Jahiliyah grew healthy in Islam. They did not only get rid of idol -worship, but they also knocked them down. The general atmosphere began to echo “there is no god but Allâh.” The calls to prayers were heard five times a day penetrating space and breaking the silence of the dead desert and bringing back life through the new belief. Reciters and memorizers of the Qur’ân set out northwards and southwards reciting verses of the Qur’ân and carrying out Allâh’s injunctions.
When the pangs of death started, ‘Aishah leant him against her. She used to say: One of Allâh’s bounties upon me is that the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) died in my house, while I am still alive. He died between my chest and neck while he was leaning against me. Allâh has mixed his saliva with mine at his death. For ‘Abdur Rahman, the son of Abu Bakr, came in with a Siwak (i.e. the root of a desert plant used for brushing teeth) in his hand, while I was leaning the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) against me. I noticed that he was looking at the Siwak, so I asked him, for I knew that he wanted it, “Would you like me to take it for you?” He nodded in agreement. I took it and gave it to him. As it was too hard for him, I asked him “Shall I soften it for you?” He nodded in agreement. So I softened it with my saliva and he passed it (on his teeth).
As soon as he had finished his Siwak brushing, he raised his hand or his finger up, looked upwards to the ceiling and moved his lips. So ‘Aishah listened to him. She heard him say: “With those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace with the Prophets and the Truthful ones (As-Siddeeqeen), the martyrs and the good doers. O Allâh, forgive me and have mercy upon me and join me to the Companionship on high.” Then at intervals he uttered these words: “The most exalted Companionship on high. To Allâh we turn and to Him we turn back for help and last abode.” This event took place at high morning time on Monday, the twelfth of Rabi‘ Al-Awwal, in the eleventh year of Al-Hijrah. He was sixty-three years and four days old when he died.