بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
In the Name of Allah The most Gracious The Most Merciful
Verily, We have sent you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم) with the truth (Islam), a bringer of glad tidings (for those who believe in what you brought, that they will enter Paradise) and a warner (for those who disbelieve in what you brought, that they will enter the Hell-fire)…(Surah Al-Baqarh 2:119)
And announce to the believers (in the Oneness of Allâh and in His Messenger Muhammad SAW) the glad tidings, that they will have from Allâh a Great Bounty. (Surah Al-Ahzab 33:47)
He was born in Bani Hashim lane in Makkah on Monday morning, the ninth of Rabi‘ Al-Awwal, the same year of the Elephant Event, and forty years of the reign of Kisra (Khosru Nushirwan), i.e. the twentieth or twenty-second of April, 571 A.D., Ibn Sa‘d reported that Muhammad’s mother said: “When he was born, there was a light that issued out of my pudendum and lit the palaces of Syria.” Ahmad reported on the authority of ‘Arbadh bin Sariya something similar to this.
‘Abdul-Muttalib called the baby Muhammad, a name not then common among the Arabs. He circumcised him on his seventh day as was the custom of the Arabs. The first woman who suckled him after his mother was Thuyebah, the concubine of Abu Lahab, with her son, Masrouh. She had suckled Hamzah bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib before and later Abu Salamah bin ‘Abd Al-Asad Al-Makhzumi.
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) was later entrusted to Haleemah bint Abi Dhuaib from Bani Sa‘d bin Bakr. Her husband was Al-Harith bin ‘Abdul ‘Uzza called Abi Kabshah, from the same tribe.
Foster brothers and sisters of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم :
‘Abdullah bin Al-Harith, Aneesah bint Al-Harith, Hudhafah or Judhamah bint Al-Harith (known as Ash-Shayma’), and she used to nurse the Prophet (Peace be upon him) and Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib, the Prophet’s cousin. Hamzah bin ‘Abdul-Muttalib, the Prophet’s uncle, was suckled by the same two wet nurses, Thuyeba and Haleemah As-Sa‘diyah, who suckled the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).
When, as related by Anas in Sahih Muslim, Gabriel came down and ripped his chest open and took out the heart. He then extracted a blood-clot out of it and said: “That was the part of Satan in thee.” And then he washed it with the water of Zamzam in a gold basin. After that the heart was joined together and restored to its place. The boys and playmates came running to his mother, i.e. his nurse, and said: “Verily, Muhammad (Peace be upon him) has been murdered.” They all rushed towards him and found him all right only his face was white.
When the Messenger of Allâh (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was thirty five, Quraish started rebuilding Al-Ka‘bah. Al-Waleed bin Al-Mugheerah Al-Mukhzumi started the work. Seeing that no harm had happened to him, the others participated in demolishing the walls until they reached the basis laid by Abraham.
Each tribe was responsible for rebuilding a part of it. Then strife broke out among the chiefs, and lasted for four or five days, each contesting for the honour of placing the black stone in its position. Al-Makhzumi made a proposal which was accepted by all. He said: “Let him, who enters the Sanctuary first of all, decide on the point.” It was then Allâh’s Will that the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) should be the first to enter the Mosque. On seeing him, all the people on the scene, cried with one voice: “Al-Ameen (the trustworthy) has come. We are content to abide by his decision.” Calm and self-possessed, Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) received the commission and at once resolved upon an expedient which was to conciliate them all. He asked for a mantle which he spread on the ground and placed the stone in its centre. He then asked the representatives of the different clans among them, to lift the stone all together. When it had reached the proper place, Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) laid it in the proper position with his own hands.
“I have never tried to do what my people do except for two times. Every time Allâh intervened and checked me from doing so and I never did that again. Once I told my fellow-shepherd to take care of my sheep when we were in the upper part of Makkah. I wanted to go down to Makkah and entertain myself as the young men did. I went down to the first house of Makkah where I heard music. I entered and asked: ‘What is this?’ Someone answered: ‘It is a wedding party.’ I sat down and listened but soon went into deep sleep. I was awakened by the heat of the sun. I went back to my fellow-shepherd and told him of what had happened to me. I have never tried it again.”
Al-Bukhari reported on the authority of Jabir bin ‘Abdullah that he said: “While the people were rebuilding Al-Ka‘bah, the Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) went with ‘Abbas to carry some stones. ‘Abbas said: ‘Put your loincloth round your neck to protect you from the stones.’ (As he did that) the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) fell to the ground and his eyes turned skyward. Later on he woke up and shouted: ‘My loincloth… my loincloth.’ He wrapped himself in his loincloth.” In another report: “His loins were never seen afterwards.”
When the Messenger of Allâh (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was twelve years old, he went with his uncle Abu Talib on a business journey to Syria. When they reached Busra (which was a part of Syria, in the vicinity of Howran under the Roman domain) they met a monk called Bahira (his real name was Georges), who showed great kindness, and entertained them lavishly. He had never been in the habit of receiving or entertaining them before. He readily enough recognized the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and said while taking his hand:
“This is the master of all humans. Allâh will send him with a Message which will be a mercy to all beings.” Abu Talib asked: “How do you know that?” He replied: “When you appeared from the direction of ‘Aqabah, all stones and trees prostrated themselves, which they never do except for a Prophet. I can recognize him also by the seal of Prophethood which is below his shoulder, like an apple. We have got to learn this from our books.” He also asked Abu Talib to send the boy back to Makkah and not to take him to Syria for fear of the Jews.
Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم), worked as a shepherd for Bani Sa‘d and in Makkah. At the age of 25, he went to Syria as a merchant for Khadijah (May Allah be pleased with her) Ibn Ishaq reported that Khadijah, daughter of Khwailid was a business-woman of great honour and fortune. She used to employ men to do her business for a certain percentage of the profits. Khadijah was informed of Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم), his truthful words, great honesty and kind manners. She sent her servant Maisarah, with him. He agreed and went with her servant to Syria for trade. When he returned to Makkah, Khadijah noticed, in her money, more profits Maisarah told her of Muhammad’s good manners, honesty, deep thought, sincerity and faith. Many prominent men had asked for her hand in marriage but she always spurned their advances. She disclosed her wish to her friend Nafisa, daughter of Maniya, who immediately went to Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and broke the good news to him. He agreed and requested his uncles to go to Khadijah’s uncle and talk on this issue. He gave her twenty camels as dowry. She was the first woman whom the Messenger of Allâh (صلى الله عليه وسلم) married. He did not get married to any other until she had died.
Khadijah bore all his children, except Ibrahim: Al-Qasim, Zainab, Ruqaiyah, Umm Kulthum, Fatimah and ‘Abdullah who was called Taiyib and Tahir. All his sons died in their childhood and all the daughters except Fatimah died during his lifetime. Fatimah died six months after his death. All his daughters witnessed Islam, embraced it, and emigrated to Madinah.
The Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) used to meditate and speculate over all aspects of creation around him. He used to provide himself with Sawiq (barley porridge) and water and then directly head for the hills of Makkah his favourite resort was a cave named Hira’, in the Mount An-Nour. He used to devote most of his time, and Ramadan in particular, to worship and meditation on the universe around him.
‘Aishah, the veracious, gave the following narration of that most significant event that brought the Divine light which would dispel the darkness of disbelief and ignorance. It led life down a new course and brought about the most serious amendment to the line of the history of mankind: “Read! In the Name of your Lord, Who has created (all that exists), has created man from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood). Read! and your Lord is the Most Generous.’” [96:1-3] The Prophet (Peace be upon him) repeated these verses. He was trembling with fear. At this stage, he came back to his wife Khadijah, and said, “Cover me, … cover me.” They covered him until he restored security. His wife tried to soothe him and reassured him saying, “Allâh will never disgrace you. You unite uterine relations; you bear the burden of the weak; you help the poor and the needy, you entertain the guests and endure hardships in the path of truthfulness.” to her cousin Waraqa bin Nawfal who had embraced Christianity in the pre-Islamic period, and used to write the Bible in Hebrew. He was a blind old man. Khadijah said: “My cousin! Listen to your nephew!” Waraqa said: “O my nephew! What did you see?” The Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) told him what had happened to him.Waraqa replied: “This is ‘Namus’ i.e. (the angel who is entrusted with Divine Secrets) that Allâh sent to Moses. I wish I were younger. I wish I could live up to the time when your people would turn you out.” Muhammad (Peace be upon him) asked: “Will they drive me out?”Waraqa answered in the affirmative and said: “Anyone who came with something similar to what you have brought was treated with hostility; and if I should be alive till that day, then I would support you strongly.” A few days later Waraqa died and the revelation also subsided.
Al-Bukhari reported on the authority of Jabir bin ‘Abdullah that he had heard the Messenger of Allâh (Peace be upon him) speak about the period of pause as follows:“While I was walking, I heard a voice from the sky. I looked up, and surely enough, it was the same angel who had visited me in the cave of Hira’. He was sitting on a chair between the earth and the sky. I was very afraid of him and knelt on the ground. I went home saying: ‘Cover me …, Cover me …’. Allâh revealed to me the verses:‘O you [Muhammad (Peace be upon him)] enveloped (in garments)! Arise and warn! And your Lord (Allâh) magnify! And your garments purify! And keep away from Ar-Rujz (the idols)!’” [74:1-5] After that the revelation started coming strongly, frequently and regularly.
The Stages of the Revelations:
The First: The period of true vision. It was the starting point of the Revelation to the Men of Allâh (Peace be upon him).
The Second: What the angel invisibly cast in the Prophet’s mind and heart. The Messenger of Allâh (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “The Noble Spirit revealed to me ‘No soul will perish until it exhausts its due course, so fear Allâh and gently request Him. Never get so impatient to the verge of disobedience of Allâh. What Allâh has can never be acquired but through obedience to Him.’”
The Third: The angel used to visit the Messenger of Allâh (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in the form of a human being and would speak to him directly. This would enable him to fully understand what the angel said. The angel was sometimes seen in this form by the Prophet’s Companions.
The Fourth: The angel came to him like the toll of a bell and this was the most difficult form because the angel used to seize him tightly and sweat would stream from his forehead even on the coldest day. If the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was on his camel, the camel would not withstand the weight, so it would immediately kneel down on the ground. Once the Messenger of Allâh (صلى الله عليه وسلم) had such a revelation when he was sitting and his thigh was on Zaid’s, Zaid felt the pressure had almost injured his thigh.
The Fifth: The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) saw the angel in his actual form. The angel would reveal to him what Allâh had ordered him to reveal. This, as mentioned in (Qur’ân), in Sûrah An-Najm (Chapter 53 – The Star), happened twice.
The Sixth: What Allâh Himself revealed to him in heaven i.e. when he ascended to heaven and received Allâh’s behest of Salât (prayer).
The Seventh: Allâh’s Words to His Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) at first hand without the mediation of an angel. It was a privilege granted to Moses (عليه السلام) and clearly attested in the Qur’ân, as it is attested to our Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) in the Sûrah Al-Isrâ’ (Chapter 17 – The Journey by Night) of the Noble Qur’ân.
Khadijah, the Prophet’s spouse, the mother of believers, was the first to enter the fold of Islam followed by his freed slave Zaid bin Harithah, his cousin, ‘Ali bin Abi Talib, who had been living with him since his early childhood, and next came his intimate friend Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (Abu Bakr the truth verifier). All of those professed Islam on the very first day of the call.
……(contd the 2nd Phase)