بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
In the Name of Allah The most Gracious The Most Merciful
His name is ‘Abdullah bin Abi Quhafa, Uthman bin ‘Aamir bin Amr bin Ka’b bin Sa’d bin Taim bin Murrah bin Ka’b (رضي الله عنه). His lineage meets with that of the Messenger at Murrah.
Abu Bakr (رضي الله عنه) was fair, slender, slightly bent backed and had a slightly slender face with large hollow eyes. His forehead protruded slightly, and he dyed his hair with henna mixed with Katam (a plant that produces a reddish black dye). He was amongst the wealthy people in Makkah and was known for his generosity, good manners and sense of honor, he was well loved among the Makkans. He was from amongst the leaders of Quraysh and was charged with overseeing the payment of blood money and debts. He was noble in character and while others were indulging in alcohol, lewd speech and sinful pastimes he kept busy in trade and was a distinct gentleman with class and honor. He was among the first to embrace Islam and did not hesitate when the Prophet invited him to Islam. The Messenger said: “I never invited any person to Islam without there being some hesitation: Abu Bakr was the first who had no hesitation.” (Al Bidayah wan Nihayah 3/87)
He was nicknamed Ateeq (one saved from the fire) by the Messenger of Allah. Abdullah ibn Zubair said, Abu Bakr’s name was Abdullah, Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said to him:”You are saved from the fire. Hence he was called Ateeq.” Tirmidhi and al-Hakim reported with a sahih isnad from ‘A’ishah, radhiallahu ‘anha, that the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم), said to Abu Bakr: “You are free from the Fire.” (Sahih al-Jami’ as-Saghir, 2/24, no. 1494).
Narrated Ibn ‘Abbas: The Prophet said, “If I were to take a Khalil, I would have taken Abu Bakr, but he is my brother and my companion (in Islam).”
Narrated ‘Urwa bin Az-Zubair: I asked ‘Abdullah bin ‘Amr, “What was the worst thing the pagans did to Allah’s Apostle?” He said, “I saw ‘Uqba bin Abi Mu’ait coming to the Prophet while he was praying.’ Uqba put his sheet round the Prophet’s neck and squeezed it very severely. Abu Bakr came and pulled ‘Uqba away from the Prophet and said, “Do you intend to kill a man just because he says: ‘My Lord is Allah, and he has brought forth to you the Evident Signs from your Lord?”
He was known as As-Siddeq,(The Truthful):
“Anas (رضي الله عنه) narrated that once Rasul Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم), Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman (radi Allahu anhum) went up Uhud (the mountain near Madina) and when it quivered because of them Rasul Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) kicked it with his foot and said, ‘Keep steady, O Uhud, for there are a Prophet, a Siddique, and two Shuhada on you.’”(Sahih al-bukhari)
Hijrah with the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم):
Narrated Al-Bara: Abu Bakr bought a (camel) saddle from ‘Azib for thirteen Dirhams. Abu Bakr said to ‘Azib, “Tell Al-Bara’ to carry the saddle for me.” ‘Azib said, “No, unless you relate to me what happened to you and Allah ‘s Apostle (صلى الله عليه وسلم)when you left Mecca while the pagans were in search of you.” Abu Bakr said, “We left Mecca and we travel led continuously for that night and the following day till it was midday. I looked (around) searching for shade to take as shelter, and suddenly I came across a rock, and found a little shade there. So I cleaned the place and spread a bed for the Prophet in the shade and said to him, ‘Lie down, O Allah’s Apostle.’ So the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) lay down and I went out, looking around to see if there was any person pursuing us. Suddenly I saw a shepherd driving his sheep towards the rock, seeking what we had already sought from it. I asked him, ‘To whom do you belong, O boy?’ He said, ‘I belong to a man from Quraish.’ He named the man and I recognized him. I asked him, ‘Is there any milk with your sheep?’ He said. ‘Yes.’ I said, ‘Will you then milk (some) for us?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ Then I asked him to tie the legs of one of the sheep and clean its udder, and then ordered him to clean his hands from dust. Then the shepherd cleaned his hands by striking his hands against one another. After doing so, he milked a small amount of milk. I used to keep for Allah’s Apostle a leather water-container, the mouth of which was covered with a piece of cloth. I poured water on the milk container till its lower part was cold. Then I took the milk to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) whom I found awake. I said to him, ‘Drink, O Allah’s Apostle.’ So he drank till I became pleased. Then I said, ‘It is time for us to move, O Allahs Apostle!’ He said, ‘Yes.’ So we set out while the people (i.e. Quraish pagans) were searching for us, but none found us except Suraiqa bin Malik bin Jushum who was riding his horse. I said, ‘These are our pursuers who have found us. O Allah’s Apostle!’ He said, ‘Do not grieve, for Allah is with us.” (Sahih al-bukhari)
Narrated Abu Bakr: I said to the Prophet while I was in the Cave. “If any of them should look under his feet, he would see us.” He said, “O Abu Bakr! What do you think of two (persons) the third of whom is Allah?” (Sahih al-bukhari)
“Allah gave one of His servants a choice between this world and what He has with Him, and that servant chose what Allah has with Him.” Abu Bakr wept profusely and we wondered why he wept, since the Prophet had told of a servant that was given a choice. The Prophet himself was that servant. The Prophet continued: “Among those most dedicated to me in his companionship and property is Abu Bakr. If I were to take an intimate friend other than my Lord, I would take Abu Bakr. But what binds us is the brotherhood of Islam and its love. Let no door [of the Prophet’s mosque] remain open except Abu Bakr’s.”
He was given the glad tidings of Paradise:
The books of the Sunnah tell us that one day the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was sitting at the well of ‘Ariis, with Abu Musa al-Ash’ari acting as his gatekeeper. Abu Bakr al-Siddiq came and asked permission to see him, and the Messenger, (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “Let him in, and give him the glad tidings of Paradise.” Then ‘Umar came, and he said, “Let him in and give him the glad tidings of Paradise.” Then ‘Uthman came and he said, “Let him in, and give him the glad tidings of Paradise because of an affliction that will befall him.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari, Muslim and Tirmidhi).
Narrated Abu Huraira: I heard Allah’s Apostle saying, “Anybody who spends a pair of something in Allah’s Cause will be called from all the gates of Paradise, “O Allah’s slave! This is good.’ He who is amongst those who pray will be called from the gate of the prayer (in Paradise) and he who is from the people of Jihad will be called from the gate of Jihad, and he who is from those’ who give in charity (i.e. Zakat) will be called from the gate of charity, and he who is amongst those who observe fast will be called from the gate of fasting, the gate of Raiyan.” Abu Bakr said, “He who is called from all those gates will need nothing,” He added, “Will anyone be called from all those gates, O Allah’s Apostle?” He said, “Yes, and I hope you will be among those, O Abu Bakr.” (Sahih al-bukhari)
Ibn ‘Asakir reported with a sahih isnad from Ibn Mas’ud that the Prophet, sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, said: “My successor will be in Paradise, his successor will be in Paradise, and the third and fourth will be in Paradise.” (Sahih al-Jami’ as-Saghir, 4/149, no. 4311.) The “successor” refers to the one who would take over the reins of leadership after his death. These four are Abu Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman and ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with them all.
After the Death of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم):
Narrated ‘Aisha: (the wife of the Prophet) Allah’s Apostle died while Abu Bakr was at a place called As-Sunah (Al-‘Aliya) ‘Umar stood up and said, “By Allah! Allah’s Apostle is not dead!” ‘Umar (later on) said, “By Allah! Nothing occurred to my mind except that.” He said, “Verily! Allah will resurrect him and he will cut the hands and legs of some men.” Then Abu Bakr came and uncovered the face of Allah’s Apostle, kissed him and said, “Let my mother and father be sacrificed for you, (O Allah’s Apostle), you are good in life and in death. By Allah in Whose Hands my life is, Allah will never make you taste death twice.” Then he went out and said, “O oath-taker! Don’t be hasty.” When Abu Bakr spoke,
‘Umar sat down. Abu Bakr praised and glorified Allah and said, No doubt! Whoever worshipped Muhammad, then Muhammad is dead, but whoever worshipped Allah, then Allah is Alive and shall never die.” Then he recited Allah’s Statement.:”(O Muhammad) Verily you will die, and they also will die.” (Surah Az Zumar 39:30) He also recited: “Muhammad is no more than an Apostle; and indeed many Apostles have passed away, before him, If he dies Or is killed, will you then Turn back on your heels? And he who turns back On his heels, not the least Harm will he do to Allah And Allah will give reward to those Who are grateful.” (Surah `ali-‘imran 3:144). The people wept loudly, and the Ansar were assembled with Sad bin ‘Ubada in the shed of Bani Saida. They said (to the emigrants). “There should be one ‘Amir from us and one from you.” Then Abu Bakr, Umar bin Al-Khattab and Abu ‘baida bin Al-Jarrah went to them. ‘Umar wanted to speak but Abu Bakr stopped him. ‘Umar later on used to say, “By Allah, I intended only to say something that appealed to me and I was afraid that Abu Bakr would not speak so well. Then Abu Bakr spoke and his speech was very eloquent. He said in his statement, “We are the rulers and you (Ansars) are the ministers (i.e. advisers),” Hubab bin Al-Mundhir said, “No, by Allah we won’t accept this. But there must be a ruler from us and a ruler from you.” Abu Bakr said, “No, we will be the rulers and you will be the ministers, for they (i.e. Quarish) are the best family amongst the ‘Arabs and of best origin. So you should elect either ‘Umar or Abu ‘Ubaida bin Al-Jarrah as your ruler.” ‘Umar said (to Abu Bakr), “No but we elect you, for you are our chief and the best amongst us and the most beloved of all of us to Allah’s Apostle.” So ‘Umar took Abu Bakr’s hand and gave the pledge of allegiance and the people too gave the pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr. Someone said, “You have killed Sad bin Ubada.” ‘Umar said, “Allah has killed him.” ‘Aisha said (in another narration), (“When the Prophet was on his death-bed) he looked up and said thrice, (Amongst) the Highest Companion (See Qur’an 4.69)’ Aisha said, Allah benefited the people by their two speeches. ‘Umar frightened the people some of whom were hypocrites whom Allah caused to abandon Islam because of ‘Umar’s speech. Then Abu Bakr led the people to True Guidance and acquainted them with the right path they were to follow so that they went out reciting: “Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is no more than a Messenger, and indeed (many) Messengers have passed away before him. If he dies or is killed, will you then turn back on your heels (as disbelievers)?..” (Surah Al-Imran 3:144). (Sahih al-bukhari)
Narrated Jubair bin Mutim: A woman came to the Prophet who ordered her to return to him again. She said, “What if I came and did not find you?” as if she wanted to say, “If I found you dead?” The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “If you should not find me, go to Abu Bakr.” (Sahih al-Bukhari)
He died in 13 AH at the age of 63. He was buried beside the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم).