بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
In the Name of Allah The most Gracious The Most Merciful
First Fundamental Principle
Belief in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, the Last Day and the belief in the divine decree, the good of it and the evil of it.
Belief in Allah
This means to affirm, believe and act upon the three categories of tawhid, which are:
1) Tawhid ar-Ruboobiyah (to single Allah out alone in lordship)
2) Tawhid al-Uloohiyyah (to single Allah out alone with all worship)
3) Tawhid al-Asmaa` was-sifaat (to single Allah out with His names and attributes).
This is to single Allah out alone with respect to His actions such as creating, sustaining, giving life or death and to believe that He is the Lord and sovereign King of everything.
This means that the servants must single out Allah alone with all acts of worship that Allah has legislated through which they seek to draw closer to Allah such as supplication, fear, hope, love, sacrifice, seeking aid, rescue and refuge, prayer, fasting, Hajj and spending in the path of Allah.
Tawhid al-asmaa` was-sifaat:
This is to affirm whatever names and attributes Allah has affirmed for Himself or which His Messenger has affirmed for Him and to negate the imperfections and deficiencies that Allah has negated for Himself or which His Messenger negated for Him; without denial, distortion or metaphorical interpretation and without likening or resembling them to the attributes of the creation, as Allah said, …There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. (Surah Ash-Shura 42:11)
And Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) said,
And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allâh, so call on Him by them…(Surah al-A’raaf 7:180)
Belief in the Angels
This is to believe in their existence and that they were created from light. Allah created them to worship Him and execute His commandsin the universe, as Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) said,
“…They are but honoured slaves. They speak not until He has spoken and they act on His command.” (Surah al-Anbiyaa` 21:26-27)
“…Who made the angels messengers with wings, two or three or four. He increases in creation what He wills. Verily, Allâh is Able to do all things.” (Surah Fatir 35:1)
Belief in the Books
This is to believe in them and the guidance and light they contain and to bleieve that Allah revealed these books to His Messengerse as guidance for mankind.
The greatest of them are the three books: the Tawraat, the injil and the Qur`an and the greatest of these three is the Noble Qur`an; it is the greatest miracle.
Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) said,
“Say: “If the mankind and the jinns were together to produce the like of this Qur’ân, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they helped one another.” (Surah Al-Isra 17:88)
Ahl as-Sunnah wal jamma’ah believe that the Qur`an is the speech of Allah that was sent down as revelation and that it is uncreated, both its letter and meaning.
This is contrary to the false beliefs of the Jahmiyyah and the Mu’tazilah who say that both the letters and meaning of the Qur`an are created. Similarly, it opposes the false beliefs of the Ashaa’irah and those who resemble them who believe that only the meaning is the speech of Allah but as for the letters then they are created. Both positions are false and rejected.
Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) said,
“And if anyone of the Mushrikûn (polytheists, idolaters, pagans, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allâh) seeks your protection then grant him protection, so that he may hear the Word of Allâh (the Qur’ân)… “ (Surah at-Tawbah 9:6)
“…They want to change Allâh’s Words…” (Surah al-Fath 48:15)
Belief in the Messengers
This is to believe in all of them from the first to the last, those whom Allah named and those whom He did not and to believe that the last and seal of the Messengers is our Prophet Muhammad
The belief in the Messengers is a general belief, whereas the belief in our Prophet Muhammad is an exhaustive and specific belief. It is to believe that Muhammad is the seal of the Messengers and that there is no Prophet after him. Whoever does not believe this, then he is a disbeliever.
Belief in the Messengers also necessitates the absence of exaggeration and negligence with relation to their rights, as opposed to the Jews and the Christians who exaggerated and went to extremes concerning some Messengers until they held some of them to be children of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) as He said,
“And the Jews say: ‘Uzair (Ezra) is the son of Allâh, and the Christians say: Messiah is the son of Allâh…” (Surah at-tawbah 9:30)
The sufis and philosophers neglected and belittled the rights of the Messengers and gave preference to their leaders over them and the idolaterse and atheists disbelieved in all the Messengers.
The Jews disbelieved in ‘Isa (Jesus) and Muhammad and the Christians disbelieved in Muhammad. Whoever believes in some of the Messengers and disbelieves in otheres, then in reality he is a dibeliever in all of them. Allah said,
“Verily, those who disbelieve in Allâh and His Messengers and wish to make distinction between Allâh and His Messengers (by believing in Allâh and disbelieving in His Messengers) saying, “We believe in some but reject others,” and wish to adopt a way in between. They are in truth disbelievers. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating torment.” (Surah An-Nisa 4:150-151)
And Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) said,
“…We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers…” (Surah al-Baqarah 2:285)
Belief in the Last Day
This is to believe in everything that Allah and His Messenger have informed us that will occur after death, from the punishment and bliss of the grave, the resurrection from the graves, the assembly, the reckoning, the weighing of deeds, the giving of the books in the right and left hand, the bridge and Paradise and the Hellfire.
Preperation for this through the perforamance of righteous actions and abstinence from evil deeds and repentance from them. The atheists and the polytheists disbelieve in the Day of Judgement and the Jews and Christians do not possess the correct belief that is required of them, even though they believe in its occurrence.
“And they say, “None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian…” (Surah al-Baqarah 2:111)
“And they (Jews) say, “The Fire (i.e. Hell-fire on the Day of Resurrection) shall not touch us but for a few numbered days…” (Surah al-Baqarah 2:80)
Belief in the Pre-Decree
This is to believe that Allah knows everything, all that was and all that will be, that He decreed all of this and recorded it in the Preserved Tablet; and that everything which occurs from good or evil, belief or disbelief, obedience or disobedience, then indeed Allah has willed, decreed and created it. Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) loves obedience and hates disobedience.
The servants have ability (qudrah) over their actions, a choice (ikhtiyaar) and will (mashi`ah) in that which emanates from them from obedience or disobedience. However, This is in accordance to the Will and Intent (iraadah) of Allah.
This is in opposition to the false belief of the Jabariyyah who say that the servant is compelled to carry out his actions, having no choice or ability.
It is also contrary to the false belief of the Qadariyyah who say that the slave has a totally independent and unrestricted free will, and that the creates his own action; and that the will and intent of the servant is independent of the Will and Intent of Allah.
Allah refutes both of these sects with His saying,
“And you will not, unless (it be) that Allâh wills, the Lord of the ‘Alamîn (mankind, jinns and all that exists).” (Surah at-Takwir 81:29)
Allah affirmed that the servant has a will (mashi`ah), which is a refutation upon the extreme Jabariyyah, and also the servant’s actions occur in accordance to His Will, which is a refutation upon the Qadariyyah who deny the Divine Decree.
This belief in the divine decree causes the slave to be patient in the face of calamities, and to stay far away from sins and shameful acts, just as it encourages him to act and removes from him laziness, fear and incapacity.