بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
In the Name of Allah The most Gracious The Most Merciful
How Sects Came Into Existence
In the Tafseer of Surah aale Imran ayah 3:106 Abdullah ibn Abbas explained it as the people of Sunnah will be the ones with the white faces and the people of bidah will be the ones with the blackened faces. On the Day (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) when some faces will become white and some faces will become black; as for those whose faces will become black (to them will be said): “Did you reject Faith after accepting it? Then taste the torment (in Hell) for rejecting Faith.”
At the time of the Sahabah, all hadith were taken without asking for the Isnaad (chain of narrators), as they all knew each other. If some said the hadith is from the Messenger of Allah people took the hadith without asking for the isnaad. All of the Sahabah are considered “thiqah” or trustworthy. The fitnah happened at the time of Uthman radhiAllah anhu.
When people entered the fold of Islam to destroy it from within. People from different parts like Egypt accepted Islam and were responsible in causing the fitnah. One of the greatest fitnah of that time was a man named Abdullah ibn Saba. After the martydom of Uthman radhiAllah anhu the people asked for the chain of narrators and if there was someone in the chain that did not meet the standards then that hadith was not taken.
When Ali radhiAllah anhu became khalifah the people were split and divided. The Methodology of the Khawarij was evident and they became a separate group. These people differed with the Sahabah in Aqeedah and they had a different understanding as those of the Muslims. This was the first physical split in Islam, they are called the Renegades.
I asked Sahl bin Hunaif, “Did you hear the Prophet () saying anything about Al-Khawarij?” He said, “I heard him saying while pointing his hand towards Iraq. “There will appear in it (i.e, Iraq) some people who will recite the Qur’an but it will not go beyond their throats, and they will go out from (leave) Islam as an arrow darts through the game’s body.’ [Sahih Bukhari 6934]
These people instead of believing in making the Deen easy, they brought hardship on the people. Like this hadith states: Narrated Al-Azraq bin Qais: We were at Al-Ahwaz fighting the Al-Haruriya (tribe). While I was at the bank of a river a man was praying and the reins of his animal were in his hands and the animal was struggling and he was following the animal. (Shu`ba, a sub-narrator, said that man was Abu Barza Al-Aslami). A man from the Khawarij said, “O Allah! Be harsh to this sheik.” And when the sheik (Abu Barza) finished his prayer, he said, “I heard your remark. No doubt, I participated with Allah’s Messenger () in six or seven or eight holy battles and saw his leniency, and no doubt, I would rather retain my animal than let it return to its stable, as it would cause me much trouble. (Sahih Al-Bukhari)
“Bukhari relates from ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (Allah be well pleased with him) “Ibn `Umar considered the Khawarij and the heretics as the worst beings in creation, and he said: They went to verses which were revealed about the disbelievers and applied them to the Believers.
After the khawarij separated, a new group came into existence to refute the khawarij, These were the shias. The khawarij cursed the sahabah so to support the sahabah the second group came into existence. This group went into ghuloo and deviated. They gave the ahlul bayt qualities and powers which was in direct opposition to Islam. So they were the second extreme group. After that the khawarij split into groups and one of the groups were the “ghulatu al khawarij”. These people declared everyone who committed a major sin to be a kaafir. To refute that anyone who commits a sin is a kaafir (which is an extreme view), a group called the murjiah arose. This group went to the other extreme and said as long as you are a Muslim, you can do anything and that nothing will harm you (whether not praying or committing sins; major or minor). They removed action from Eemaan. These groups came into existence at the time of the sahaabah. So its not like there weren’t any innovators at the time of the sahabah. How they dealt with innovators is how we are supposed to deal with innovators.
Then we come to a new sect called Qadariyyah they came from Basra and they denied the Qadr or Pre Decree. Some of them said Allah azza wa jall does not know the action of the slave till the slave does it. That Allah azza wa jall did not create the action nor does He have a Will. They wanted to exalt Allah from things like murder, and that people disbelieve.
It is narrated on the authority of Yahya b. Ya’mur that the first man who discussed qadr (Divine Decree) in Basra was Ma’bad al-Juhani. I along with Humaid b. ‘Abdur-Rahman Himyari set out for pilgrimage or for ‘Umrah and said: Should it so happen that we come into contact with one of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) we shall ask him about what is talked about taqdir (Divine Decree). Accidentally we came across Abdullah ibn Umar ibn al-Khattab, while he was entering the mosque. My companion and I surrounded him. One of us (stood) on his right and the other stood on his left. I expected that my companion would authorize me to speak. I therefore said: Abu Abdur Rahman! There have appeared some people in our land who recite the Qur’an and pursue knowledge. And then after talking about their affairs, added: They (such people) claim that there is no such thing as Divine Decree and events are not predestined. He (Abdullah ibn Umar) said: When you happen to meet such people tell them that I have nothing to do with them and they have nothing to do with me. And verily they are in no way responsible for my (belief).
Abdullah ibn Umar swore by Him (the Lord) (and said): If any one of them (who does not believe in the Divine Decree) had with him gold equal to the bulk of (the mountain) Uhud and spent it (in the way of Allah), Allah would not accept it unless he affirmed his faith in Divine Decree.
Following the Qadariyyah we have the Jabarriyyah. They said,”A person is like a feather in the wind”, that people do not have a will and he has been forced to do everything.
These firqa’s or divisions came into existence at the time of the Sahabah.
At the time of the tabaeen we have the Jahmmites, they were the followers of Jahm bin safwan. The denied the Names of Allah and they denied that the Quraan was the speech of Allah and they said it is a makhlooq or a creation of Allaah.
Then appeared the Mu’tazilah. The Mu’tazilah are a kalam group who founded speech about Allaah, His Names, Attributes and Actions upon the conceptual baggage and terminology of Aristotle. This was taken from them by the Ash’aris and Maturidis who share in the usool (foundations) of the Mu’tazilah in this field, but differ with them in subsidiary matters. The Mu’tazilah claimed the Qur’an is created because speech (kalaam) cannot be established with Allaah as an attribute or as something tied to another attribute, iraadah (wish) as the presence of attributes and wilful actions necessitates Allaah is a body (jism) and this would invalidate the proof for establishing the universe (a collection of bodies) is originated. This is what Ahl al-Kalaam founded their theology upon. This meant that the Qur’an had to be accounted for and so the Mu’tazilah said the Qur’an is a created entity, and is said to be Allaah’s speech in the same way that a mosque is said to be Allaah’s house or a messenger is said to be Allaah’s messenger.
In order to prop up this same futile theology operating upon corrupt theoretical foundations, the Ash’arites followed the school of Ibn Kullaab who invented the kalaam nafsee concept and the two Qur’an doctrine it necessitated: An eternal uncreated single indivisible meaning in the self of Allaah and a created Arabic Qur’an that is recited, heard and memorized with the servants. Both of these doctrines necessitate that the Qur’an is created, a statement of kufr, except that the Mut’azilah are apparent and open and the Ash’arites are conniving.
So during all this time the people of the haqq were known as ahlul sunnati wal jamaah, on the unity of the sunnah from who opposed the sunnah. In opposition to the people of bidah.
The first from those who opposed the ahlul bidah was Abdullah ibn Abbas. Where he explained the ayah 3:106. On the Day (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) when some faces will become white and some faces will become black; as for those whose faces will become black (to them will be said): “Did you reject Faith after accepting it? Then taste the torment (in Hell) for rejecting Faith.”
At the time of the the tabaeen, there were some people who belonged to a group called the “Madrastul rai” or the school of opinion. They were known as this as they depended upon their own analogy and on their own minds and intellect and they opposed any hadith which their logic did not agree with. To refute this group the ahlul hadith and the ahlul athaar emerged. Contrary to this group they only followed the Prophet and the athaar from the sahabah.
To be rightly guided and to discern the truth from falsehood we must know the usool of the Prophet sallallahu alayhee wa sallam.
If you do not have the Aqeedah of the Messenger sallallahu alaihi wa sallam and the sahabah then it does not matter how long your beard is, you are not guided. If you have the aqeedah then you need to have the usool and the sulooq and the mamalaat which are their mannerisms. Nowadays, muslims are very harsh with people in their dealings and are not on the way of the sahabah. The sahabah were were always upon ibaadah during the days and the nights. They used to apply their knowledge in their life which led to good mannerisms.
The Manhaj has three Usool:
1) The relationship between the abd (slave) and Allaah. The dealings of aqeedah between tawheed and shirk.
2) How to apply it in real life. This is further divided into two sub categories.
a) Ahlul sunnah how do they behave with one anoother.
b) Ahlul sunnah how they deal with everyone else.
3) The manners of the Prophet and the Sahabah and their dealings
Abdullah ibn Ma’sood lamented,” How will it be when the trials overcome you, in which the old grow senile and the young grow up. And the people take the bid’ah as the Sunnah and the, and when it changes they say, the Sunnah has changed.” It was then said,”When will that be O Abu Abdurrahmaan?” He replied,” When your speakers are many and your scholars are few, and your wealthy ones are plenty and trustworthy ones are few.” [ad-Daarimee]
To Be Continued…. In sha Allah