Hadith 13,14

Love For Your Brother What You Love For Yourself

 

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم       

Bismillahir-Rahman-nir-Raheem   

In the Name of Allah The most Gracious The Most Merciful

 

On the authority of Abu Hamzah Anas bin Malik (رضي الله عنه), the servant of the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم), that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: None of you [truly] believes until he loves for his brother that which he loves for himself. [Al-Bukhari] [Muslim].

Brief biography of Anas Ibn Malik, Ibn Nadhar, Ibn Dam Dam, Ibn Zaid, Al Khazraji, Al Ansari. His mother was umm sulaim, her real name is Ar-Rumaysa Bint Milhan. She is from the greatest of companions. The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said in a hadith that he heard her footsteps in paradise. She is also called Al-Ghumaisa` . His father was Malik Ibn Nadhar. He was the prophets servant for ten years. He said he never heard the prophet ever say uff to him or ask him why he did or did not do something. This is in contrast to the people of today who say uff even to their parents. This shows the great manners and respect the Prophet had for the believers.

From his virtue was that the prophet made dua for him and that he asked Allah to increase him in money and children. it is said that he died in a castle and he said i am the most with regards to money and children. Anas said 120 people from his lineage died in his lifetime. Some scholars say he died in 91AH, others say 92AH and another group say 93AH. Allahu A’lam. The age in which he died is said to be 103 years, 107 and 110. It is somewhere in this range. He narrated more than 2000 narrations from the prophet.

My Notes:

When a Hadith says none of you truly believes comes in a hadith then that means that something obligatory is coming. If a person is sinful if he does not do it but it does not take him out of Islam. The person has the foundation of the religion (tawheed, salah, arkan and did not do shirk or any sin that takes one of out Islam). So when a person doesn’t do an element that is obligatory but not from the foundations of Imaan then this is regarded as a deficiency in ones Imaan.

Another example of a hadith that starts with none of you believe is the following hadith:
It is reported on the authority of Anas b. Malik that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: None of you is a believer till I am dearer to him than his child, his father and the whole of mankind. (Sahih Muslim)

Rejection is not the only way to disbelieve in islam. Other ways are kibr (ego/arrogance) and cursing the religion. Sometimes the arabs say this person is so and so does not mean hes that particular thing in every aspect, like saying this person is not human, it does not mean hes literally not a human.

la yuttim imana ahadakum (none of you keeps his Imaan) it means it is negating a level of iman because Iman goes up and down and does not stay the same all the time.

The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “Whoever wishes to be delivered from the fire and enter the garden should die with faith in Allah and the Last Day and should treat the people as he wishes to be treated by them…” (Sahih Muslim)

You need to love for your brother what you love for yourself. This is from having knowledge and understanding of deen and for him to have good in the dunya too. You must not wish for him to lose his wealth. The scholars said it may seem hard to do this but it is not. It is easy because if you want what your brother has then you don’t have to wish that he loses it but you wish you have it too. The scholars said it is hard on the dirty sick heart. You do not lose anything when asking or wishing that your brother has what you have.

A Muslim will get whispers like this from shaytaan in his life with regards to many things. One must fight the shaytaan and the best way to fight him is by seeking refuge in Allah (Isti’adha). This is especially imporant for the student of knowledge and ones who spread the deen not to have ill thoughts towards them and wish bad for them. Some people don’t wish good things for someone but they also wish bad for the person and this is something we need to be careful of.

Notes From Sharh (Explanation):

This hadeeth has been narrated thus in Saheeh al-Bukhaaree as “for his brother” without any doubt on the part of the narrator, while in Saheeh Muslim the narrator mentions that the wording may have been “for his brother” or “for his neighbour”.

The ‘ulamaa have said that the meaning of the hadeeth is that the one who does not have this characteristic has not believed with the complete and perfect eemaan, while he has already achieved the basic level of eemaan.

And the intented meaning of “loves for his brother” is those things which are from obedience to Allaah, and the permissible matters, as opposed to the evil or Haraam matters, and this is proved from the narration collected by an-Nasaa’ee which mentions: “until he loves for his brother from the good that which he loves for himself”.

And Abu az-Zinaad said: What is apparent from this hadeeth is that one desires for ones brother the same as that which one wishes for oneself, but the real meaning is that one desires for him better than what one wishes for oneself. This is because man always wishes that he is the best of the people [in all things]; so if he loves for his brother what he loves for himself [to be the best], then he has placed his brother amongst the generality of those who are the best. [Also,] do you not see that man desires to receive justice for his rights and injustices done against him ? So if he has completed/perfected his eemaan, and then he sees that he has wronged his brother or his brother has a right upon him, then he makes haste to establish justice in that affair, even if this may cause himself difficulty.

And it is narrated that al-Fudail bin ‘Iyaad said to Sufyaan bin ‘Uyaynah “If you wish that the people are similar to you then you have not offered to Allaah, the Most Generous, the True Naseehah [sincerity – see Hadeeth 7], so how will it be if you love that they are less than you ?”

And some of the ‘Ulamaa have said based upon this Hadeeth that the believer with another believer is like a single soul, and so it is desired that he loves for him that which he loves for himself, since they are as though a single soul. And similar to this has come in another hadeeth : “The Believers are like a single body; if a single limb feels pain, then the whole body along with it suffers with fever and sleeplessness.”

Summary:

The hadeeth negates the perfection/completeness of Faith (eemaan) for someone who does not wish for his Muslim brother that which he likes for himself.
That a believer will not want something to happen to another Muslim whichhe would not like for himself.

 

 

Prohibition Of Blood Of  A Muslim

 

On the authority of Ibn Masood (رضي الله عنه) who said: The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “It is not permissible to spill the blood of a Muslim except in three [instances]: the married person who commits adultery, a life for a life, and the one who forsakes his religion and separates from the community.” [Al-Bukhari] [Muslim]

 

My Notes:

One of the instances only has to be present not all three of them.  The married person applies to the one who is married currently or was married before. If the person is not currently in a marriage contract it still applies to them.

The ahadith in the Forty hadith collection speak of the foundations of the religion. Like in hadith no.1 is the foundation of niyyah and ikhlas, and other hadith about rejecting bid’ah. This hadith is  foundation that spilling the blood is haram. The general ruling that it is haram to spill the blood and if we spill the blood we need an evidence.

Not permissible here means it is haram. There are many ahadith that show that it is haram to spill the blood of a Muslim. The one who denies these evidences then he has left the religion. It is like he says zina is halal or alcohol is halal the same ruling applies. If he is ignorant then he is taught the truth that it is haram to kill the believer.

We do not take from this hadith that it is permissible to spill the blood of a non muslim. There is a hadith that says whoever kills a mu’ahad he will not smell the smell of paradise. It is not permissible to kill the people who have treaties with the Muslims and other cases where a leader allows people to come into the country for safety and there are those who pay the jizyah (tax) and are not allowed to be harmed.

Those who do adultery are of two types. The one who has been married and the other who has not been married. The one who is not married gets lashed 100 times and in the correct opinion he is exiled from the city for one year. The one who has been married gets the punishment of being stoned to death. There is a difference of opinion of they get lashed before being stoned.

A life for a life. The practice from the arabs is to kill someone important from that family instead of the person who did the killing. This is not permissible in Islam, the punishment goes to the one who did the crime of killing.

If a Muslim kills a non Muslim who it is not permissible to kill then he is not killed. The Prophet said:
Narrated ‘Amr bin Shu’aib: from his father, from his grandfather that the Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “The Muslim is not killed for disbeliever.” And with this chain, it has been narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “The blood-money paid for disbeliever is half of the blood-money paid for a believer.” (At-Tirmidhi, Hasan). Some scholars say it is for the ruler to kill him or not. It is not for Hadd punishment but to discourage others from doing this. A woman is killed if she kills a man and vice versa. The pagan arabs would not want a man to be killed for a woman. The scholars differed whether a free man is killed if he kills a slave.

The betrayl of leaving Islam is the biggest betrayl one can do. The person who is born a Muslim or reverts to Islam and then leaves it is killed. The judge will try to convince the person not to leave the religion and teach him if he has any doubts that caused him to want to leave the religion. The ahnaf (hanafis) say that a woman is not killed if she leaves the religion. The other schools of thought say yes she is killed and it is the vast majority’s opinion. This opinion can be refuted with the fact that a woman is killed if she does zina and other punishments that a man does. A person who spies on his country is killed for doing so.  Betraying the religion  is far worse than the betrayal of one’s country.
There are certain rulings that are not mentioned in this hadith like killing the magician as it says in the hadith that cut the magicians neck with a sword. There is a narration where a sahabi killed a magician who used to make it seem like he removed his head from his body. So the sahabi cut his head off and said put your head back on if you are able to. Another example is the punishment for homosexuality and that the person is killed and takes the ruling of fornication and it doesn’t matter if they were married or not married. There is the example of the one who seeks to be a khalifa while there already is one in place.

Notes From Sharh (Explanation):

And in some of the narrations of this hadeeth, that are also agreed upon by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, it mentions: “It is not permissible to spill the blood of a Muslim who testifies that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, and that I am the Messenger of Allaah, except in three [instances] …”. So his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) statement “testifies that none is worthy of worship except Allaah and I am the Messenger of Allaah” is as though a tafseer (explanation) of his statement “a Muslim”. Similarly, his statement “[who] separates from the community” is like a tafseer of his statement “who forsakes his religion”. So in these three instances the blood of a Muslim can be spilled, from a textual evidence. And the meaning of the ‘community’ (al-jamaa’ah) is the community of Muslims. So separating from the Muslims by apostacy from the Religion of Islaam is a reason for the permissibility of shedding his blood.

And his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) statement “the one who forsakes his religion and separates from the community” is general and refers to all those who apostate from Islaam, by whichever method this may occur, and it then becomes obligatory on the Muslims to kill him unless he returns to Islaam.

And the scholars have mentioned that this also includes all those who leave [being of] the community of Muslims through an innovation or transgression or other than that, and Allaah knows best. [Note: It would appear that this innovation or transgression must be of a very serious nature, such that the perpetrator would effectively leave the fold of Islaam]. And what is apparent is that this is a general rule [ie. killing a Muslim is only allowed in these three instances], but it also includes certain specific situations such as an attacker or similar to that. In such cases, then it is permissible to kill a Muslim out of defence from harm from him – indeed it may be that this becomes obligatory, as such an attacker comes under those who have separated from the community. And also, the meaning here is that killing a Muslim intentionally is not permitted except in these three instances, and Allaah knows best.

And some of the ‘ulamaa have used this hadeeth to show that the one who abandons the Prayer (salaah) is killed, because the one who abandons the Prayer is included amongst these three. And the scholars have differed over this issue, so from them are those who say that the one who abandons the Prayer becomes a disbeliever (kaafir) while others say that he does not. And some of those who rule that he becomes a kaafir use as a proof another hadeeth in the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said “I have been ordered to fight the people until they testify that none is worthy of worship except Allaah, and that I am the Messenger of Allaah, and they establish the Prayer (salaah) and pay the poor due (zakaah)”. So it is said: “the angle of derivation of proof is that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) made protection based upon fulfilling all of these conditions – the two shahaadahs, establishing the salaah and paying the zakaah. And the consequence of these things (protection) is not attained except by fulfilling all of them, and is negated by the absence of any one of them.” And this is what is obtained if we consider only the apparent speech of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) where he said “I have been ordered to fight the people …”, as this seems to indicate an order to fight until the goal is obtained. However, [in taking such an understanding] it is forgotton and overlooked that there is a difference between muqaatalah (fighting) over something, and qatl (killing) over it. For in fighting over something the purpose is to obtain what is desired [that they return to the Prayer] in any way that may occur, and it does imply the necessity of killing the one who leaves the Prayer, as long as they do not fight us, and Allaah knows best.

And his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) statement : “a life for a life” is in agreement with the statement of Allaah ta’aalaa “And we have prescribed for them in it (the Tawraat): a life for a life” [al-Maa’idah, 45]. And its meaning is those who are equivalent in Islaam and Freedom, due to the statement of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) “A Muslim is not killed [in requittal] for a kaafir”. And also, Freedom is a condition for equality according to Imaams Maalik, ash-Shaafi’ee and Ahmad. [ie. A free man cannot be killed for a slave] However, the scholars of Ahl-ur-Rayy [The People of Opinion – a reference to the scholars of the Hanafee madhhab] have taken the position that a Muslim is killed for a dhimmee [a non-Muslim who pays the jizyaa, and lives under the protection of a Muslim state] and that a free man is killed for a slave, and they use this hadeeth as a proof. But the jamhoor (majority of the scholars) have ruled opposite to this.

Summary:

That a Muslim can be killed legally only for three crimes : a) adultery b) murder and c) apostacy

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