The Sanctity Of A Muslim
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
In the Name of Allah The most Gracious The Most Merciful
On the authority of the Ibn ‘Umar (رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا) that the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: I have been ordered to fight against the people until they testify that there is none worthy of Worship except Allaah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and until they establish the Salaah and pay the Zakaah. And if they do that then they will have gained protection from me for their lives and property, unless [they commit acts that are punishable] in Islaam, and their Reckoning will be with Allaah. [Related by Bukhaaree and Muslim]
From this hadith we understand the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is a slave of Allah. He is ordered and he has been prohibited. Here in this hadith it says to fight the people. The Messenger has been sent for every person so every person should do everything that is mentioned in the shahadah and all of the obligations that are in Islam. All people should be asked to do everything.
The first obligation on people is Tawheed unlike people of ahlul qalaam, who say you are born a Muslim, no wait first you determine if you are a Muslim. Nor as some say the first obligation is Tawheed. We have already discussed the meaning of La ilaha illalllah. Are these people warned before warning or after. The assl is that they are asked to accept Islam.
So three things happen here: 1) They pay Jiziyyah 2) They accept Islam or 3) We fight them. There is no compulsion in religion. You have these three things. There is one opinion that says these three things are valid for the mushrikeen from amongst the Jews and the Christians. And for the mushrikeen other than that it is only 2 things: 1) we fight them 2) they accept Islam. There is another opinion that says that this is applicable to everyone. So entering Islam is not the only choice. The people of the book can tell us that they want to pay jiziyah and that they do not want to accept Islam. To establish the salaah and to pay zakaat. This has already been established in the earlier ahadith. This also proves that if a group of people stop us from praying or giving zakaat we must fight them.
The next point in the hadith is to establish the salaah and to pay zakaat. This has already been established in the earlier ahadith. This also proves that if a group of people stop us from praying or giving zakaat we must fight them. The Scholars said if people do not allow us to give adhaan we must fight them. This is not an individual decision it has to be done with a Ruler. The Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said if they do that then their blood is protected by me. So nobody is allowed to kill him or take his money except for the right of Islam. Like fornication has a hadd on him. If you have the hadd established on someone then it has to e carried out. Maybe some will lie to you about their acceptance of Islam that is not your business, their reckoning is with Allah. You cannot see into their hearts or their minds. You believe them if the pronounce the shahadah in front of you.
Al Miqdad bin Al Aswad reported that he said: “Apostle of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) tell me if I meet a man who is a disbeliever and he fights with me and cuts off one hand of mine with the sword and then takes refuge by a tree and says “I embraced Islam for Allah’s sake. Should I kill him, Apostle of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) after he uttered it (the credo of Islam)? The Apostle of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said “Do not kill him”. I said “Apostle of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم), he cut off my hand. The Apostle of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, Do not kill him. I f you kill him, he will become like you before you kill him and you will become like him before he uttered his credo which he has uttered now. (Sunan Abi Dawood)
Usamah bin Zaid (رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا) reported: Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) sent us to Huraqat, a tribe of Juhainah. We attacked that tribe early in the morning and defeated them, (then) a man from the Ansar and I caught hold of a man (of the defeated tribe). When we overcame him, he said: ‘La ilaha illallah (There is no true god except Allah).’ At that moment, the Ansari spared him, but I attacked him with my spear and killed him. By the time we went back to Al-Madinah, news had already reached Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم). He said to me, “O Usamah, did you kill him after he professed La ilaha illallah (There is no true god except Allah)?” I said, “O Messenger of Allah! He professed it only to save his life.” Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) repeated, “Did you kill him after he had professed La ilaha illallah?” He went on repeating this to me until I wished I had not embraced Islam before that day (so that I would have not committed this sin). [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].
This hadith is a reply to the Murjiah who say that actions are not important. If a group of people accept Islam and say no don’t want to pray or give zakaat that is not allowed. Some people said we will not celebrate Eid so some scholars said they should be fought against by a ruler.
Notes From Sharh (explanation):
This is a Great Hadeeth and a Principle from amongst the Principles of the Religion. It has also been narrated by Anas (رضي الله عنه) whose version mentions:
“Until they testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah and that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger, and accept our Qiblah, and eat from what we slaughter, and and pray our Salaah. And if they do all that, then their blood and wealth is Protected except from the Rights of Islaam. And for them is what is for the Muslims and upon them is what is upon the Muslims.”
And it has come in Saheeh Muslim from the narration of Abu Hurayrah (رضي الله عنه): “Until they testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah and believe in me and in what I have come with” and this has the same meaning as what Ibn ‘Umar narrated.
Narrated on the authority of Humaid: Anas bin Malik said, “Whenever the Prophet went out with us to fight (in Allah’s cause) against any nation, he never allowed us to attack till morning and he would wait and see: if he heard Adhan he would postpone the attack and if he did not hear Adhan he would attack them.” Anas added, “We reached Khaibar at night and in the morning when he did not hear the Adhan for the prayer, he (the Prophet ) rode and I rode behind Abi Talha and my foot was touching that of the Prophet. The inhabitants of Khaibar came out with their baskets and spades and when they saw the Prophet they shouted ‘Muhammad! By Allah, Muhammad and his army.’ When Allah’s Apostle saw them, he said, “Allahu-Akbar! Allahu-Akbar! Khaibar is ruined. Whenever we approach a (hostile) nation (to fight), then evil will be the morning of those who have been warned.”
As for the meaning of this hadeeth, then the scholars of seerah have said:
After the death of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq radiAllaahu ‘anhu became the Khaleefah, and some of the Arab tribes apostasized, so Abu Bakr prepared to fight them. And amongst them were those who refused to pay the Zakaah, but who had not explicitly apostasized. So ‘Umar radiAllaahu ‘anhu said to Abu Bakr: “How can you fight a people who have said ‘laa ilaaha illaa Allaah’ and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said ‘I have been ordered to fight the people until they say ‘laa ilaaha illaa Allaah’?” So Abu Bakr radiAllaahu ‘anhu replied : “By Allaah! If they refuse to pay (in Zakaah) a young goat that they used to pay the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), I will fight them.” And ‘Umar radiAllaahu ‘anhu followed him in doing this.
Regarding the statement of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) “I have been ordered to fight the people until they say ‘laa ilaahaa illaa Allaah’ …” al-Khattaabee rahimahu Allaah and others said: The people referred to here are the idol worshippers and the mushriks of the Arabs, and those who do not believe apart from the People of the Book. And whoever approves of Tawheed from his own religion of Kufr, then his statement of ‘laa ilaaha illaa Allaah’ is not enough to protect his blood and wealth, as has come in other narrations that mention that one must also believe that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah, and establish the Salaah, and pay the Zakaah.
And Shaykh Muyee ad-Deen an-Nawawee said: “And it is necessary that he believes along with this in all that the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) came with, as is mentioned in the hadeeth of Abu Hurayrah : ‘until they testify that none is worthy of worship except Allaah, and believe in me and in all that I come with'”.
And the meaning of his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) statement: “and their Reckoning will be with Allaah” refers to those matters which they hide from the people, i.e. those things other than that which is outwardly apparent from the compulsory actions. Al-Khattaabee mentions this and then says:
“And from this is that the one who outwardly shows Islaam but secretly maintains Kufr, then his Islaam is accepted outwardly by the people, and this is the opinion of most of the People of Knowledge.”
And in his (صلى الله عليه وسلم) statement: “I have been ordered to fight the people until they testify that none is worthy of worship except Allaah, and believe in me and in all that I come with” is a clear proof for the position of the People of Truth and the vast majority of the Salaf and the Khalaf, that it is enough for a person to believe in the Religion of Islaam with a firm, unwavering belief, without it being necessary for him to understand the proofs of the Mutakallimoon (people of Theological Rhetoric) regarding the ‘recognition’ of Allaah through the intellect. And this opposite to the statement of those people that it is an obligatory condition for the correctness of ones eemaan. And this is clear from the fact the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) mentioned only at-Tasdeeq (belief, affirmation) and did not lay any condition for it through intellectual recognition. And this hadeeth appears a number of times in the Saheeh, and together they reach the rank of mutawaatir, without doubt yielding definite knowledge, and Allaah knows best.
That the disbelieving people are fought until Islaam triumphs.
That it is an order from Allaah and thus waajib.
That the Ameer of the Muslims enforces protection of the lives and the properties of the Muslims.
That if a Muslim does something which deserves a punishment according to the Rulings of Islaam, then the Ameer of the Muslims must enforce that too.
That the punishments must be given, regardless of what Allaah will Judge for them (i.e. Allaah may punish them or forgive them).
Narrated usama bin Zaid: Allah’s Apostle sent us towards Al-Huruqa, and in the morning we attacked them and defeated them. I and an Ansari man followed a man from among them and when we took him over, he said, “La ilaha illal-Lah.” On hearing that, the Ansari man stopped, but I killed him by stabbing him with my spear. When we returned, the Prophet came to know about that and he said, “O usama! Did you kill him after he had said “La ilaha ilal-Lah?” I said, “But he said so only to save himself.” The Prophet kept on repeating that so often that I wished I had not embraced Islam before that day. (Sahih Al-Bukhari)
Allahu A’lam – Allah Knows Best