Rejection of Evil Deeds and Innovations
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
In the Name of Allah The most Gracious The Most Merciful
On the authority of the Mother of the Faithful, Umm `Abdillaah `Aaishah (رضي الله عنها) , who said: The Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “He who innovates something in this matter of ours [i.e. Islaam] that is not of it will have it rejected [by Allaah]”. [Related by al-Bukhaari and Muslim]
This hadth is very important. Shaykh Saleh ala shaykh has said preserve this hadith its very important. This hadith shows bidah is not accepted. It also shows that a person who comes closer to Allah with a worship should come with a daleel.
In one version by Muslim it reads: He who does an act which we have not commanded, will have it rejected [by Allaah].
This is a foundation of worship and the assl of aadaat: The one who claims that wearing or eating something is haraam the claimant brings the proof. But in worship the one who is doing the worship brings the proof. As it is said by the Scholars that the origin of all kinds of worship, all worship is haraam except with an evidence and all types of normal things is halaal except with daleel.
These 2 narrations hadith 1 and hadith 5 show that the Deen is complete.
Imam Maalik used to say that anyone, whoever innovates in this Deen, is claiming that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) did not complete the message or give it completely. (It means something has been left incomplete or the entire message has not been given and the message is not perfect or it has mistakes).
Abu Umama or Suday ibn `Ajlan ibn Wahb or Abu Umama al-Bahili (died 81AH, 700CE, Homs, Syria) was a companion (sahabah) of Prophet Muhammad (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . He was with Ali in the Battle of Siffin, and later settled in Syria. Some 250 hadiths are related from him by Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. He was the last of the companions to die in Syria.
Abu Umama was a sahabi who had the kunyah of his daughter. As Abu Ruqayyah Tamim al aus ad Dari, had the kunyah of his daughter.
The benefit of giving a kunyah to a little boy is that he becomes more responsible. It confirms his identity as a boy unlike nowadays where people blame their genes on their unwanted sexual diversions.
The extra benefit in the second one is it specifically mentions actions. Which means when he does an act which he copied from someone before him but its not according to the commands then it is rejected.
What is Bidah?
It is starting something that has no previous example. Linguistically Bidah means something that has no previous examples. Like Allah subhanahu wa ta’aala created something that no one created anything like that before him. Was there an earth like this before or The Universe.
Bidah in the shariah means: Innovating a worship which is in words or actions or aqeedah that Allah and the Messenger did not legislate.
The definition of a Bid’ah is: “Any newly invented matter in the religion, which resembles (rivals) the Sharee’ah (and drives it out), where nearness to Allaah is sought, with the intention of doing it regularly and in the exaggeration in the worship of Allaah.” If someone wants to innovate in the dunyah then he has to know if its permissible its allowed and if its impermissible then its not allowed. In Shariah it is not allowed. Bidah is of two types one takes you out of Islam and one that does not. Like trying to get closer to the person in the grave. This is shirk and its a bidah and it takes you outside the fold of Islam and the second kind of bidah is using the rosary.
The five categories on which rulings are derived:
The action should be compatible with shariah in SIX ways:
1) Reason: What is the reason of your worship? Like some people say New year of hijri so celeberate it. You are not allowed to celeberate.
2) Type: A person does some type of worship which is not allowed. Like doing udhiyyah with a horse.
3) Amount: Like a person wants to wash his face 4 times in wudu as the Messenger said you cannot increase in wudu.
4) How: Some types of worship have a how in them. Like you do sujood before you do rukoo. Laa you cant
5) Place: A person makes ihtikaaf in streets or someone goes to kerbala.
6) Time: Praying duhr salaah before its time.
When you want to give virtue to something you have to give evidence for it. Like if you say fasting on a particular day is going to give you certain rewards then you have to come with daleel.
“’There is not one amongst us except that he is either refuting or being refuted, except the one in this grave (the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم).” — Imam Malik.
There is no such thing as bidah hasana (good bid’ah).
There are 5 things that take you outside the fold of Ahlus-Sunnah:
1) Differing from Ahlus-Sunnah in a major foundation.
2) Turning a sub-category into a major category (foundation) and doing their ‘wala and bara’ upon that.
3) Too many mistakes in sub-categories.
4) Blind-following a madhab .
5) Sitting with, following and enjoying the company of Mubtadi’ah.
Notes From The Sharh (Explanation):
This hadeeth is a Great Principle from amongst the Principles of the Religion, and it is an example of the Perfect and Concise Speech of the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم), as in it is found a clear rejection of every innovation (bid’ah) and every innovator. And this hadeeth is also used as a proof of the invalidity of every contract prohibited by the Sharee’ah, and also by some of the scholars of Usool ul-Fiqh when they say that a prohibition implies the invalidity of that action.
And in the second narration which states that “He who does an act which we have not commanded, will have it rejected” there is a clear and unequivocal command to leave all things which are newly introduced into the religion, whether the person invents that action himself or whether he follows someone else who has preceded him. For verily some of the obstinate innovators give as a proof for their innovation the fact that they themselves have not introduced the innovation, but rather they are following the action of someone else – and they use the first hadeeth above to show that they are then not blameworthy.
And this hadeeth should be acted upon meticulously in all our affairs, and it should be preserved and spread amongst the people and used as an evidence to show the invalidity of all innovations and evil actions, for verily it includes in its meaning all of that. However, as for the Furoo’ (branches) of knowledge which are established from the Usool (basic principles) and which do not depart from the Sunnah, then these are not referred to by this hadeeth. For example, the writing down of the Qur’aan as a Mus-haf by ‘Uthmaan (radiAllaauh ‘anhu), or the establishment of the various madhhabs in Fiqh (Schools of Jurisprudence), which are from the understanding of the Mujtahid scholars of Fiqh, those who built the matters of Furoo’ upon the Usool (which are the statements of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم). And also, from amongst the matters not included in this hadeeth is the writing of books on subjects such as Grammar, or Arithmetic, or the Laws of Inheritance, and other than that from the sciences that are built upon the statements and commands of the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم).
That anything new introduced in the matter of worship, which has not already been given sanction from the Qur’aan and the Sunnah will not be accepted by Allaah.
That anything new incorporated into the Deen must be thrown away and rejected by the Muslims.