Deeds Are By Their Final Actions
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
In the Name of Allah The most Gracious The Most Merciful
On the authority of Aboo `Abd ir-Rahmaan `Abdullaah ibn Mas`ood (رضي الله عنه), who said: The Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and he is the Truthful, the Believed, narrated to us: Verily the creation of each one of you is brought together in his mother’s womb for forty days in the form of a nutfah (a drop), then he becomes an ‘alaqah (clot of blood) for a like period, then a mudghah (morsel of flesh) for a like period, then there is sent to him the angel who blows his soul into him and who is commanded with four matters: to write down his rizq (sustenance), his life span, his actions, and whether he will be happy or unhappy (i.e. whether or not he will enter Paradise). By the One, other than Whom there is no deity, verily one of you performs the actions of the people of Paradise until there is but an arms length between him and it, and that which has been written overtakes him, and so he acts with the actions of the people of the Hellfire and thus enters it; and verily one of you performs the actions of the people of the Hellfire, until there is but an arms length between him and it, and that which has been written overtakes him and so he acts with the actions of the people of Paradise and thus he enters it. [Narrated by al-Bukhaari and Muslim.]
This is a great hadith and if you see it talks about the creation of the human being inside the womb and it also addresses the topic of decree, this is an agreed upon hadith (Bukhari and Muslim) and more than one sahabi has narrated this hadith including Hudhaifah.
Brief biography of Abdullah ibn Masud: He was from the first people to accept Islam. He was a short man. Ali ibn Abi Talib said: The Messenger of Allah commanded Ibn Mas’ood, so he climbed a tree to get something from the tree top for the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) . While climbing, his legs became exposed and the Companions saw how thin they were and this caused them to laugh. The Messenger of Allah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said: “What are you laughing at? At the legs of ‘Abdullah that will heavier on the scale on the Day of Qiyaamah than the weight of mount Uhud?”
He narrated about 848 hadith. He did hijrah thrice, twice to Abyssinia and once to Medinah. He prayed to both the Qiblahs (Masjid al Aqsa and Makkah), He died in 32 A.H. at 60 something.
Haddathana Rasul Allah meaning the Messenger narrated to them. The explanation of the embryonic stage is a daleel that this is what happens to each person is created this way. The saying of the Messenger that the creation of each one of you is brought together further show us that it is not just one thing that comes together. They say there are 46 chromosomes half of them come from the male and half from the female, the sperm comes together with the egg. This also proves that the Messenger does not speak from himself but it is a revelation that has been revealed. Nutfah means a drop, and mudgah which means leech, Allah creates hearing before sight. If anyone researches this they will find that it is exactly as described.
The Shafaee and the Hanabila said its 40 days and some scholars said 120 days, as the hadith mentioned that the hearing will begin and the sight. The Maliki said you cannot abort the baby at all. The sperm connects with the egg its haraam to abort the baby, The hanafi use a hadith and said you can abort the baby. The strongest opinion from all is that of Imam Malaik. What if the mothers life is in danger then do you abort the baby? What if the woman is pregnant 7 or 8 months and the doctor says that if you don’t abort the baby the mother will die, So in such a circumstance what do we do? The correct opinion is that even in such a situation you cannot abort the baby. This is from the opinion of Shaykh Uthaymeen. Some scholars said The mother can have more children. Shaykh Uthaymeen said What if there is an old man and a young child in the desert. Is it permissible for the old man to kill the young boy if there is absolutely no food available to satisfy his hunger, no one cannot do that. The meaning is that it is impermissible from the correct opinion of the Scholars.
The Angel is ordered to write four things for the child in the womb. As it states in a hadith:
Narrated Anas bin Malik: The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “At every womb Allah appoints an angel who says, ‘O Lord! A drop of semen, O Lord! A clot. O Lord! A little lump of flesh.” Then if Allah wishes (to complete) its creation, the angel asks, (O Lord!) Will it be a male or female, a wretched or a blessed, and how much will his provision be? And what will his age be?’ So all that is written while the child is still in the mother’s womb.” speaking about his decree, earlier he mentioned the forming of the child in the womb. (Sahih Al-Bukhari)
Rizq is of two types 1) What is important for you physically. 2) rizq of the Deen. This was written 50 thousand years before the creation of the earth. When a person knows that his Rizq is pre ordained then he is comforted by that knowledge and he knows he need not do haraam or anything as he will receive his rizq as promised by Allah. He will not steal or forcibly take what is not his. The Scholars say that even if you eat haraam that is rizq. And we know that we will not die until we have eaten the last morsel that was ordained for us.
If you know your lifespan is written you will go to Jihad with ease in your heart, as you know it is written. In a hadith it says:
Narrated Jabir bin `Abdullah: On the day of the battle of Uhud, a man came to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) and said, “Can you tell me where I will be if I should get martyred?” The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) replied, “In Paradise.” The man threw away some dates he was carrying in his hand, and fought till he was martyred. (Sahih Al-Bukhari)
Knowing that things are written down you go out in search of rizq same as your actions and your destination, Jannah or Hellfire. It is all written down and Allah is Wise and He did not force a person to disbelieve. Earlier we have studied that Allah shows Mercy by guiding people and Justice towards the disbelievers and Wisdom in what He does. Allah knows what a person will do, how he will do it.
This hadith shows that you are allowed to swear without anyone asking you to swear. You swear on important things to show their importance. This also confirms Uloohiyyah to Allah. The Messenger swore on Allah no one is worthy to worship except Him. In the beginning of 40 Hadith Imam Nawawi swore by Allah.
verily one of you performs the actions of the people of the Hellfire, until there is but an arms length between him and it, and that which has been written overtakes him and so he acts with the actions of the people of Paradise and thus he enters it. This does not happen to everyone but some who have been on Islam and get deviated. What is the reason for this, is this injustice of Allah? La wallah. This person who does the actions of the one of the people of jannah. Some scholars said he has riyah in his heart, some people do the actions of the people of jannah but he enters the fire. Some scholars said they are ones who have problems in their heart. Outside you are polite and inside you are different. You have a disease in your heart. Allah sees it.
Khadijah (رضي الله عنها) like in the hadith of the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم), when he came to her frightened and how with her wiseness she dealt with it that she swore by Allah and said Allah will not disgrace you ever. …”Then Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) returned with that experience; and the muscles between his neck and shoulders were trembling till he came upon Khadija (his wife) and said, “Cover me!” They covered him, and when the state of fear was over, he said to Khadija, “O Khadija! What is wrong with me? I was afraid that something bad might happen to me.” Then he told her the story. Khadija said, “Nay! But receive the good tidings! By Allah, Allah will never disgrace you, for by Allah, you keep good relations with your Kith and kin, speak the truth, help the poor and the destitute, entertain your guests generously and assist those who are stricken with calamities.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari)
The hadith of Jabir: That the Messenger said: The slave who dies on something will be resurrected on that. One should fear Allah and ask Allah to keep him firm. From the Mercy of Allah is that more people turn from bad to good than from good to bad. This is beacause the Mercy of Allah preceded His wrath. A benefit of the hadith is happiness and sadness depends on your ending. It is not how you start but how do you end. One should not die on a bad end so when you do an action don’t count on it. Like if you prayed today forget it and don’t talk about it. Because you don’t know maybe one day you turn. One should supplicate to Allah that He gives them a good end that he accepts your worships. Ya Muqallib al-Quloob Thabbit Qalbi ‘ala Deenik (Oh turner of the hearts, make my heart firm on your religion). The hearts are between the Two Fingers of Ar-Rahman, he turns them the way He wants. Allah prefers that your worship is sustained than sporadic. Ghuloo (extremism) is one of the reasons why a person can move away.
There is a hadith that says: Actions depend on how they end. This is in musnad imam ahmad have weakness in it. Ibn Taymiyyah said it is not about Beginnings it is about Endings.
Notes From Sharh (Explanation):
The statement of ibn Mas’ood that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was “the Truthful, the Believed” means that he was Truthful in his speech and that he was Believed in whatever he came with of the the Wahee (inspiration). The Messenger is truthful and what comes to him from Jibreal is also truthful.
Regarding the statement that “the creation of each one of you is brought together in his mother’s womb for forty days…” then some of the scholars have commented that this means that the sperm and egg are initially separate within the mother’s womb, and it is Allaah who brings them together (to form the zygote) and they remain in this ‘basic’ state for a period of forty days. [Please note that this comment was made before the 8th Century Hijree, showing the knowledge of the ‘Ulemaa at that time – and further evidence of the Truthfulness of what the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) came with]
The further description of the embryo in the various stages of ‘alaqah and mudghah are also incredibly accurate – and in our times Dr Keith Moore has described this in detail in his books on Human Development.
The angel that is sent to the embryo is the angel who is deputized with the Responsibility of the Womb.
Regarding the statement “verily one of you performs the actions of the people of Paradise …” then we understand that this means that a person may perform good actions correctly until he is an arms length away from Paradise, but then what has been previously written about him (i.e. his Qadar) will override that and he will perform evil deeds and thus enter the Hellfire. And this is in conformance to the hadeeth that “Deeds are by their final actions”. And it is understood and seen that the changing of a person from good to evil is rare and is not the norm, whereas the changing of a person from evil to good is far more common – and this is from the Kindness and Mercy of Allaah subhaanahu, the One whose Mercy knows no bounds, and we thank and praise Him for that. And we know from the Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) that Allaah has said: “Verily My Mercy precedes My Anger” and in another narration “Verily My Mercy overcomes my Anger”.
And in this hadeeth is the establishment of the Belief in Qadar, and this is the belief of Ahl-us-Sunnah wa al-Jamaa’ah. We believe that all occurrences are by the Pre-ordainment of Allaah (i.e. everything that occurs has already been decreed by Allaah) and everything that happens is only by His Will – both the good of it and the evil of it. Allaah ‘azza wa jall has said concerning Himself in His Noble Book:
“He is not asked about His Actions, but they (the creation) are asked” [Soorah al-Anbiyaa’, aayah 23]
Allaah Acts as He Wishes in His Kingdom, and no one else may act except by His Will.
Imaam as-Sam’aanee said: The path to understanding this subject [of Qadaa’ and Qadar] is through the guidance of the Qur’aan and Sunnah, and not through analogy and bare intellect. So whoever turns away from the guidance of these two [the Qur’aan and Sunnah] then he is misguided and astray in a sphere of confusion, and he does not achieve the purification of the soul, nor does he attain that which contents the heart. [This is] because al-Qadar is something Hidden from amongst the Hidden Secrets of Allaah ta’aalaa, which He has kept for Himself only, and has veiled from the minds and understanding of the creation. And Allaah ta’aalaa has veiled the knowledge of al-Qadar from all of creation, so that not even the angels or the Messengers comprehend it. And it has been said that the secrets of al-Qadar will be revealed to them when they enter Paradise, but not before that.
And in other ahaadeeth it is established that a person should not leave performing good actions, depending upon what has already been written for him in his Qadar, but rather he should act according to whatever has been prescribed for him in the Sharee’ah. For whoever is of the People of Bliss then Allaah will make easy for him the actions of the People of Bliss, whereas whoever is of the People of Sadness then Allaah will make easy for him the actions of the People of Sadness, as is mentioned in the hadeeth. And also there is the saying of Allaah ‘azza wa jall in His Noble Book:
“And We shall make easy for him [the righteous one] the path of Good … And We shall make easy for him [the wicked one] the path of Evil” [Soorah al-Lail].
Some of the Scholars have said : It is obligatory to have eemaan [faith] in the Book of Allaah, and the Lawh (Protected Tablet) and His Pen [which was ordered to write down everything in the Lawh], but as for the precise nature of these and their modality or ‘howness’ (kayfiyyah) then this knowledge is with Allaah alone, and no one attains any of His knowledge except what He wishes, and Allaah knows best.
That the angel of life blows the soul into the foetus after it is 120 days old, so without doubt, terminating the life of a foetus when it is over 4 months old is definitely murder.
That each child which is born has its sustenance, how long it will live, what it will do and how it will fare, recorded before birth since Allaah knows the past and the future and allows the child to be what it will be.
That since life, sustenance, ability and existence is in the Hands of Allaah and taken care of by Him, one who knows this will not become deceitful or desperate about these things, but worship Allaah constantly and patiently.
That the results are in the Hands of Allaah and one must do what one knows is best according to His Deen.
That one never knows how a person will change, either for the good or the bad, so one should not give up trying.
It is permissible to say “By Allaah” to emphasise something.
One should seek refuge with Allaah from lapsing into evil.
Abdullah b. Mas’ud reported: Evil one is he who is evil in the womb of his mother and the good one is he who takes a lesson from the (fate of) others. The narrator came to a person from amongst the Companions of Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) who was called Hudhaifa b. Usaid Ghifari and said: How can a person be an evil one without (committing an evil) deed? Thereupon the person said to him: You are surprised at this, whereas I have heard Allah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) as saving: When forty nights pass after the semen gets into the womb, Allah sends the angel and gives him shape. Then he creates his sense of hearing, sense of sight, his skin, his flesh, his bones, and then says: My Lord, would he be male or female? And your Lord decides as He desires and the angel then puts down that also and then says: My Lord, what about his age? And your Lord decides as He likes it and the angel puts it down. Then he says: My Lord, what about his livelihood? And then the Lord decides as He likes and the angel writes it down, and then the angel gets out with his scroll of destiny in his hand and nothing is added to it and nothing is subtracted from it. (Sahih Muslim)
Four points of Qadr:
Tawheed of Knowledge and Tawheed of Actions. To believe in al qadaa wa qadar.
1) To believe in the eternal knowledge of Allah
2) Whatever was going to happen was written in the Preserved Tablet 50,000 years before
3) The Will of Allah. Everything that happens, happens with the Will of Allah.
4) Everything that exists and will exist and its attributes were created by Allah. Everything about that thing is from Allah.
Part of the belief of the Asma wa Siffat of Allah is to believe that the Quran is the speech of Allah it is uncreated. Likewise to believe in the Hands of Allah the Face of Allah and all His Attributes.
The Prophets of Allah:
Three things that distinguish a true Prophet from a false Prophet.
1) The message itself they all came with the same message to teach the creation about Allah and what is loved and hated by Allah.
2) Their character was on a higher level than anybody. The jews and teh christians malign the Prophets and their truthfulness.
3) The Miracles of the Prophets and the Messengers. There has never been a sorcere who has done any kind of the miracles that the Messengers have done
When Allah created creation He wrote with Him above His Throne: Verily My mercy precedes My wrath.
O Allah if You have written me down as being someone who is miserable then erase that for me; and instead write me down as being happy. For indeed you erase whatever You wish and You write down and uphold whatever You wish. Umar ibn Al-Khattab [Al-Fatawa (14/275)]
Did We not create you from a despised water (semen)?. Then We placed it in a place of safety (womb). For a known period (determined by gestation)?. So We did measure, and We are the Best to measure (the things). Woe that Day to the deniers (of the Day of Resurrection)! (Surah Al-Mursalat 77:20-24)
Then He showed him what is wrong for him and what is right for him; (Surah Ash-Shams 91:8)
Narrated al-Wazi’ ibn Zari’: Umm Aban, daughter of al-Wazi’ ibn Zari’, quoting his grandfather, who was a member of the deputation of Abdul Qays, said: When we came to Medina, we raced to be first to dismount and kiss the hand and foot of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). But al-Mundhir al-Ashajj waited until he came to the bundle of his clothes. He put on his two garments and then he went to the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم). He said to him: You have two characteristics which Allah likes: gentleness and deliberation. He asked: Have I acquired them or has Allah has created (them) my nature? He replied: No, Allah has created (them) in your nature. He then said: Praise be to Allah Who has created in my nature two characteristics which Allah and His Apostle like. (Sunan Abi Dawud)
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said, “When any human being is born. Satan touches him at both sides of the body with his two fingers, except Jesus, the son of Mary, whom Satan tried to touch but failed, for he touched the placenta-cover instead.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari)
All the Actions of Allah depend on 3 things:
The Salaf used to say O Allah treat us with your Mercy not with your Justice.
Allahu A’llam – Allah Knows Best