‘ubaadah ibn as-Saamit pt.2

The Meaning of:

…and Muhammad is His servant and messenger…”

Meaning: And also testify to that as well. It is joined with the testimony before it (“Whoever testifies that nothing has the right to be worshipped except Allaah, alone, having no partner…”).

The meaning of the word ‘abd “Slave” here is a slave or servant that is owned. In other words, he belongs to Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى). This specific servitude is his (سبحانه و تعالى) description just as Allaah said:

Isn’t Allaah sufficient for His servant? (Surah Az-Zumar, 39:36)

So the highest level of a servant is this specific servitude combined with messenger-ship,6 and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) is the most complete of all creation regarding these two honorable and dignified characteristics.
These words ‘abduhu wa rasooluh “His slave and messenger” were used by the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) as a refutation of extremism and negligence. This is because many of those claiming to be from his nation either go to extremes in statement and action, or neglect following him. They rely upon others’ opinions which are in contradiction with what he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) came with. They thereby mislead themselves and others by misinterpreting his rulings and what he has informed of, abusively turning away from what he actually intended. They shun the notion and requirement of submitting to his guidance as they arrogantly discard it. The testimony that “Muhammad is the messenger of Allaah” requires believing in him (صلى الله عليه وسلم) as who he really is, believing and trusting in what he informs of, obeying him in what he commands, and abstaining from what he forbids and warns against. It requires one to honor and uphold his commands and prohibitions, never giving precedence to the statement of anyone over him (صلى الله عليه وسلم), no matter who it may be.
The circumstance of today, and even in the past, due to those people who attribute knowledge to themselves from some judges and those who pass religious verdicts, is almost completely contradictory to that (that which has just been mentioned in the previous two sentences) and from Allaah we seek help.

Al-Bukhaaree reported that ‘Ataa Ibn Yasaar said: I met ‘Abdullaah Ibn ‘Amr Ibn Al-‘Aas (رضي الله عنه) and said, “Inform me of the description of Allaah’s Messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم) as it is in the Torah.” He replied: It is not for any believing man or woman, when Allaah and His messenger have decided any matter, that they should have any choice in their affair. (Surah Al-Ahzaab, 33:36)

And He said: So let those beware who oppose his order (or way, Sunnah) lest a tribulation should befall them or a painful punishment. (Surah An-Noor, 24:63)

Imaam Ahmad said, “Do you know what tribulation is? Tribulation is Shirk. Perhaps if someone refuses some of his statements, there may fall into his heart some form of deviation by which he is destroyed.” As for negligence, it occurs by refusing to following him (صلى الله عليه وسلم) or by giving someone else’s possibly error-prone statements and opinions precedence over his (صلى الله عليه وسلم), especially the statements of some scholars as is well-known.

By Allaah, he is surely described in the Torah with some of his characteristics mentioned in the Qur`an:
Oh prophet, indeed We have sent you as a witness, a bringer of good tidings, and as a warner. (Soorah Al-Ahzaab, 33:45)

(Allaah continues in the Torah:) “…and a retreat for the illiterates. You are My servant and messenger. I have named you Al-Mutawakkil (the one who relies solely upon Allaah). He is not rude, harsh, or loud in the markets. He does not repay evil with evil. Rather, he forgives and forgives. Allaah will not take him (in death) until He straightens and rectifies through him crooked religion by them saying, ‘Nothing has the right to be worshipped except Allaah.’ With it (the statement of Tawheed), he will open blind eyes, deaf ears, and locked hearts.” (Recorded by al-bukhari, Hadith 2125, Imam Ahmad no. 6585, and Ad-Daarimee 1/5).

The Meaning of:

“…and that ‘isa is the slave of Allah and His messenger…”

This is contrary to what the Christians believe of him that he is Allah, the son of Allah, or part of the trinity; Allaah is far above what they say.

Allaah has neither taken a son, nor has there ever been with him another god.
(Surah Al-Mu`minoon, 23:91)

So one must testify and firmly believe that ‘isa (Jesus) (عليه السلام) is Allaah’s servant and messenger9 with sure knowledge and certain faith that he belongs to Allaah. He created him from a female with no male intervention as He
(سبحانه و تعالى) says:
Oh people of the scripture, do not go to extremes in your religion or say about except the truth. The Messiah, ‘isa, the son of Maryam, was but a messenger of Allaah and His word which He directed to Maryam and a soul from Him. So believe in Allaah and His messengers. And don’t say, “Three.” Stop, it is better for you. Indeed, Allah is but one God. Exalted is He above having a son. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And Allaah is sufficient as the controller or all affairs. Never would the Messiah be too proud and refuse being a servant of Allaah nor would the angels near. And whoever refuses His worship and is arrogant – He will gather all of them to Himself.(Surah An-Nisa`, 4:171-172)

Indeed, the example of ‘isa to Allah is like that of Adam. He created him from dust and then said to him, “Be,” and he was.(Surah `ali-‘Imran, 3:59)

So he was no lord nor was he a god. Allah is high above what they associate with him in worship. And Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) also said:
They have undoubtedly disbelieved, those who say Allaah is Christ, the son of Maryam.(Surah Al-Maaidah, 5:17)

And in many other places in Soorah Al-Maidah (5:17, 72, 75), Allah speaks of ‘isa and his talking while still an infant in the cradle.

So she (Maryam) pointed to him (‘isa). They said, “How can we speak to an infant in the cradle?” He (‘isa) said, “Indeed, I am the servant of Allaah. He has given me the scripture and made me a prophet. And He has made me blessed wherever I am, and has enjoined upon me prayer and charity as long as I am alive. And He made me dutiful to my mother, and not an arrogant tyrant. And peace is on me the day I was born, the day I will die, and the day I will be resurrected alive.” That is ‘isa, the son of Maryam, the word of truth about which they are in dispute. It is not for Allaah to take a son, exalted is He. When he decrees any matter, He only says to it, “Be,” and it is. (‘isa said,) “And indeed, Allaah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him. That is the straight path.” (Surah `ali-‘Imran, 19:29-36)

And He says:
Never would the Messiah be too proud and refuse being a servant of Allaah nor would the angels near. And whoever refuses His worship and is arrogant – He will gather all of them to Himself.(Surah An-Nisa`, 4:172)

And the believer also testifies to the lie of his (‘isa’s) enemies, the Jews, when they say he was a son of an adulteress, Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) has cursed them. So no one’s Islaam will be correct and complete unless they know what they say and they renounce the statement of both groups (the Christians and the Jews) regarding ‘isa and they sincerely believe what Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has said of him: that he is the servant of Allaah and His messenger (صلى الله عليه وسلم).

The Meaning of:

“…and His word…”

‘isa (عليه السلام) is only referred to as “His word” because he was brought into existence (in Maryam’s womb) merely by Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) saying, “Be,” as the predecessors (Salaf) of those who explain the Quraan have said.

Imam Ahmad said in “Ar-Radd ‘alaa Al-Jahmiyyah,” “By the statement, ‘…and His word which He directed to Maryam,’ it is when He said, ‘Be.’ So ‘isa was brought about by the word, ‘Be,’ but he himself is not actually the word, ‘Be.’ Rather, by it, he was brought into existence. So the word is a statement from Allah and His word, ‘Be,’ is not created. The Christians and the Jahmiyyah have both lied against Allah regarding ‘isa.

Imaam Ahmad is making this argument because in “Ar-Radd ‘alal-Jahmiyyah” (pg. 20), he says: The Jahmiyyah made a claim saying, “We have found a verse in the book of Allaah that proves the Quraan is created.” So we asked them, “And what is it?” They replied, “It is the verse:

The Messiah, ‘isa, the son of Maryam, was but a messenger of Allaah and His word which He directed to Maryam (Surah An-Nisa`, 4:171)

The Jahmiyyah continued with their claim,) “And ‘isa was created.” (So Imaam Ahmad refuted this with the argument above.

The Meaning of:

“…which He directed to Maryam…”

Ibn Katheer, the famous commentator of the Quraan, said, “He created him (‘isa) with a word with which He sent the angel Jibreel (عليه السلام) to Maryam. He blew into her from his soul by the command of his Lord (سبحانه و تعالى). So ‘Eesaa was created by the permission of Allaah. He originated due to a word that He said, ‘Be,’ and he was. As for the soul that was sent, it is Jibreel (عليه السلام).”

The Meaning of:

“…and a soul from Him…”

Regarding the statement, “…and a soul from Him…,” Ubayy Ibn Ka’b said, “’isa is one of the souls that Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) created then questioned them with his statement:
And when I have fashioned him and breathed into him of My soul, then fall down to him in prostration. (SUrah Al-Hijr, 15:29)

And He describes his example as being similar to the example of Adam in other verses, and Allaah knows best.

In “Qurratul-‘Uyoon,” Shaykh ‘Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Hasan says: This statement means that he is one of the souls that He took out of Adam (عليه السلام) and took from them all a covenant that He is their Lord and God;
Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:
And when your Lord took from the children of Adam, from their backs, their descendants and made them testify against themselves, (saying to them,) “Am I not your Lord?” They replied, “Yes, we have testified.” (This,) unless you should say on the Day of Resurrection, “Indeed, we were unaware of this.”
(Surah Al-A’raf, 7:172)

The soul of ‘isa is one of those souls that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) created. Ibn Jareer narrated that Wahb Ibn Munabbah said, “Jibreel breathed into a pocket of Maryam’s garment until the breath reached the womb and encompassed her.” As-Siddee said that the breath entered her chest and she became pregnant, may Allaah be pleased with her. Ibn Jurayh said, “They say that he only breathed into her garment pocket or sleeve.” So Jibreel breathed and Allah created by His word, “Be,” and he was just as He says in the fore-mentioned verse: And when I have fashioned him and breathed into him of My soul. [Al-Hijr, 15:29] So far removed is He besides Whom no other can create and no other should be worshipped.

Some Christians used to mention to some Muslim scholars the statement of Allaah, “and a soul from Him”(Surah An-Nisa`, 4:171). In reply, they said that this is not specific to ‘isa (عليه السلام), Rather, all creation is like that as Allaah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:
And He has subjected to you whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth – all from Him.(Surah Al-Jaathiyah, 45:13)

“Am I not your Lord?” They replied, “Yes, we have testified.”
(Surah Al-A’raf, 7:172)

(Ubayy Ibn Ka’b continues,) “Allah sent it (his soul or statement) to Maryam so that it entered her.” This narration was reported by ‘Abid Ibn Humayd and ‘Abdullah Ibn Ahmad in “Zawaaid Al-Musnad,” and by Ibn Jareer, Ibn Abi Haatim, and others. Al-Haafith said that Allaah described him as being from Himself, and the meaning is that he originated from Him as in the verse:
And He has subjected to you whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth – all from Him.(Surah Al-Jaathiyah, 45:13)

So the meaning is that he (‘isa) originated from Him just as the meaning of the other verses is that He originated and created these things; He originated them with His capability and wisdom.

Ibn Taymiyyah said: When Allah attributes anything to Himself, as long as it is not a separate entity of its own among creation, then it is obligatory to accept it as an actual, real attribute and personal characteristic of Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) (such as His hand, eyes, etc). And it is impossible to mean that something of the creation is personally attributed to Him as a lord or part of the Lord. So whenever the attributed thing is a separate entity such as ‘isa, the angel Jibreel, or the souls of the children of Adam, then it is impossible that it be a personal attribute of Allah, because something that is a separate being of itself cannot be a characteristic of another.

Meaning: All from Him as a creation and origination. And likewise, ‘Eesaa is a creation and origination from Him like all of His other creations. In this Hadith, there is a refutation of the Jews. They are at variance with the Christians as they used to consider him a son of an adulteress. So Allah declared them to be liars and disproved their false claims just as he disproved the extremism of the Christians as has already been clarified in previous verses.

So the Christians wrongfully went to the greatest of extremes and disbelief with regards to ‘Eesaa, the son of Maryam (عليه السلام), and the Jews wrongfully committed the worst denial and rejection with regards to his rights. And thus, both of them strayed far away. In many places within His book, Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) makes clear the truth and validity of ‘isa, the Christ (عليه السلام). He raised him in rank and made him among the five most significant prophets and messengers mentioned in (Surah Al-Ahzaab 33:7 and Ash-Shooraa 42:13).

When something is attributed to or associated with Allah in this way, it could be from two perspectives:

First, the attributed thing or person is from the point that Allah created and brought it into existence and this is inclusive of all creations. Examples of this are the terms: “the heaven of Allah,” or “Allah’s earth.” In this way, all creations are servants of Allah just as all wealth could be considered “Allah’s wealth.”

Second, Allah may attribute something to Himself for a special reason in that it may be something He loves, commands, or is pleased with such as His specifying the ancient house, the Ka’bah (in Mecca) for certain acts of worship that are not performed anywhere else (as it is often referred to as “the house of Allah”). It is also said regarding the fifth of war gains Muslims may obtain that it is “the wealth of Allah and His messenger.” From this perspective, the servants of Allah are those who solely worship Him and obey His commands. So this second type of attribution or association of something with Allaah includes His right of worship, His legislation, and His religion. And the first type includes His lordship and creation.

The Meaning of:

“…that Paradise is true and the Fire is true…”

Meaning: And the person also testifies that the Paradise that Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) has informed of in His book and that He has prepared it for the righteous believers, that it is real and true, a confirmed belief with no doubt. And he or she testifies that the Fire He informs of and has prepared for the disbelievers, that it is also real and true as Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) says:
Race toward forgiveness from your Lord and a Paradise (or garden) whose width is like the width of the heavens and earth, prepared for those who believed in Allah and His messengers. That is the bounty of Allaah which He gives to whom He wills. And Allah is the possessor of great bounty.(Surah Al-Hadeed, 57:21)

And He says:

So fear the Fire whose fuel is men and stones prepared for the disbelievers.
(Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:24)

And from what is apparent from the two verses is proof that Paradise and the Fire are both creations existing now and Iman in them both as eternal abodes is required.

The Meaning of:

“…Allah will admit him into Paradise no mater what his deeds may be.”

This is the reward for whoever fulfills the previous conditions. The Hadeeth is also narrated with a different ending:

Allaah will admit him into any of the eight gates of Paradise he wishes.
Al-Haafith said regarding “…no matter what his deeds may be,” that it means no matter if they were righteous or bad, because it is incumbent upon the people of Tawheed that they will (eventually) enter Paradise. This statement could also be understood (even from the Arabic text) to mean that the people of Paradise will enter according to their deeds, each of them at varying levels.

Al-Qaadhee Iyyaadh said, “What has been narrated in the Hadeeth of ‘Ubaadah (رضي الله عنه) is exclusively for those who testify to what the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) has mentioned and they combine these testimonies with actual and firm Eemaan and the Tawheed that has been reported in this Hadeeth. In that case, the person would receive rewards that exceed his bad deeds and thus gain forgiveness, mercy and immediate entrance into Paradise.” (This version is recorded by Muslim, Hadith no. 28).

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