Ahadith

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم       

Bismillahir-Rahman-nir-Raheem   

In the Name of Allah The most Gracious The Most Merciful

 

It is an agreed upon fact that Qur’an and Sunnah are the integral part of Islamic shariah, and the entire reliable and irrefutable sunnah is preserved in authentic ahadith. A hadith is composed of two parts: the matn (text) and the isnad (chain of reporters). A highly reliable and trustworthy chain of narrators (isnad) is pre-requisite for the text (matan) to be acceptable.

The Classification of Hadith

Classification of hadith on the basis of reliability and memory of the reporters:

These are classified into four categories:
(i) Sahih (sound)

(ii) Hasan (good)

(iii) Dha’eef (weak)

(iv) Maudhu’ (fabricated)

Grading for a hadith to be sahih

1)  those which are transmitted by both al- Bukhari and Muslim;

2) those which are transmitted by al-Bukhari only;

3) those which are transmitted by Muslim only;

those which are not found in the above two collections, but 

4) which agree with the requirements of both al-Bukhari and Muslim;

5) which agree with the requirements of al- Bukhari only;

6) which agree with the requirements of Muslim only; and

7) those declared sahih by other traditionalists.

The Sahabah who narrated the most hadith

1) Abu Hurayra radiAllah anhu (5374)

2) Abdullaah ibn ‘Umar radiAllah anhu (2630)

3) Anas ibn Maalik radiAllah anhu (2286)

4) A’ishaa radiAllah anha (2210)

5) Abdullaah ibn ‘Abbas radiAllahu anhu (1660)

6 ) Jaabir radiAllah anhu (1540)

Sahih (sound)

A sahih hadith has to have following five characteristics:

(i) Its chain of transmitters is continuous and there is no missing person in the chain of narrators.
(ii) The narrators are God-fearing, trustworthy in their religion with righteous conduct (adl).
(iii) The narrators are of very accurate and strong memory (dabt).
(iv) It is not an isolated (shadh) hadith.
(v) It has no hidden defect (mudallis)

Hasan (Good)

The Hasan hadith is that which has following charateristics:

(i) Its chain of transmitters is continuous and there is no missing person in the chain of narrators.
(ii) The narrators are God-fearing, trustworthy in their religion with righteous conduct (adl).
(iii) The narrators are comparatively less accurate but have a good memory (dabt).
(iv) It is not an isolated (shadh) hadith.
(v) It has no hidden defect (mudallis)

Dha’eef (weak)

A dha’eef (weak) hadith is that in which;

(i) There is a discontinuity in the chain of narrators (isnad).
(ii) One of the reporters has a disparaged character and does not posses the ability of retaining the text.
(iii) There is ambiguity in the isnad or in the matan of hadith
(iv) The hadith is shaaz or mu’alall.

Maudhu’ (fabricated)

(i) The matan (text) is against the established norms of Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه وسلم) sayings, and
(ii) Its one or more reporters are liars.

The daif hadith is further classified into different categories depending upon the defects in the qualification of isnad, these are;

i ) Mursal ii) Mu’allaq iii) Mudallas iv) Munqati’ and v) Mu’dhal

Qudsi

Hadith Qudsi is that in which the words used are that of Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) but the meanings are from Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) The hadith Qudsi is brought down to Prophet sws through revelations and during sleep.

Difference between the Qura’n and Hadith Qudsi (Both being words of Allah):

1) Qura’n is a miracle whereas hadith Qudsi is not.
2) Quran has been revealed upon the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) through a medium – Jibreal, whereas Hadith Qudsi is revealed directly upon the Prophet, without medium.
3) In Qura’n both the words and their meanings are from Allah (سبحانه و تعالى) whereas in hadith Qudsi the words used may be from the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم) or Allah (سبحانه و تعالى), whereas the meaning are always from Allah (سبحانه و تعالى).
4) The munkir (detestable) of Qura’n is a kafir, but a munkir of hadith Qudsi is not kafir but a condemned one.
5) It is desirable to have ablution before reading Qura’n whereas this is not the case with hadith Qudsi.
6) Hadith Qudsi cannot be recited in the Salaah

 

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